Jonathan Edwards during 18th Century of New England experienced various types of suffering such as disease, death, and fear of war. In detail, he was suffered from his weak health, the death of his beloved daughter and acquaintances, and the failure of ministry. Edwards perceived these problems as a part of divine providence and more specifically interpreted it as an opportunity for evangelism, self-examination, and warning of sin. To overcome the suffering, Edwards believed and aspired for the good will of God. He also look after Jesus Christ as an example for endurance and shared his problems with his friends through letters. In this process, Edwards contemplated on suffering and physical pain through the holistic view on human beings. He also integrated the divine works of providence and salvation. In the midst of this ongoing pandemic, Edwards sets a practical example for Christian suffering and offers his unique theological interpretation.
The activities of women at all levels of society today are very conspicuous. Women are broadening their horizons in every field. But the status of women in the church seems to be changing slowly. The role of women in the church is limited to all kinds of services and visitations. I would like to find an alternative by studying the female ministers who participated in the missionary (pastoral) ministry of Paul and Yonggi Cho (Youngsan).
This paper will first investigate the position of women in the Greek-Roman society where Paul lived and the roles of Paul’s female co-workers, Phoebe, Prisca, and Junia in Romans 16, thereby clarifying Paul’s view of women. Paul made a revolutionary statement at a time when women were being neglected. He respected women and did a successful missionary work with them.
Next, I observe the reality of Korean Christian women in the era of Youngsan’s life, the practical ministry of Pastor Jashil Choi a female co-worker of Youngsan, and the female cell group leaders, to get a detailed understanding of what contributions they made to Youngsan’s ministry and what difficulties Youngsan overcame to make women leaders at church.
Finally, through the work of finding commonalities in the ministry of Paul and Youngsan, it will be revealed that one of the important factors that enabled them to have a successful ministry was female workers. Just as Paul and Youngsan opened their eyes and abandoned the habits and prejudices of the time, and stood together for the expansion of God’s kingdom without ignoring women, and achieved successful ministry, so the church today should open its eyes. For the growth of the church, it is desperately necessary to establish female leaders based on the words “male and female are all one in Jesus Christ” (Gal 3:28), and to give female ministers the same authority as men have.
교회성장, 여성 구역장, 여성 사역자, 최자실 목사, 여성 동역자, church growth, female cell group leader, female minister, Pastor Jashil Choi, female co-worker
The New Understanding of the Holy Spirit through the Discussion of Kenosis in Modern Theology, and the Pneumatology of Youngsan Theology 현대신학의 케노시스 논의를 통한 새로운 성령 이해와 영산 신학의 성령론
The aim of this thesis is to propose a new understanding of the Holy Spirit that is applicable to modern era through the discussion of Kenosis as the core issue of modern theology, and to compare this with the understanding of the Holy Spirit of Youngsan theology, which is the representative theory of the Holy Spirit in the Korean church.
Kenosis (κένωσις) is a theological concept mentioned in Philippians 2:5-11 that explains the act of self-emptying by Jesus Christ as an effort to demonstrate his divinity and interchangeability with God through incarnation. And modern theology extends this concept even further by expressing it as God the Father’s own nature and confesses God as the one who is self-emptying. This thesis reveals that the above-mentioned nature of the emptying and sacrifice of the Son and the Father is also applicable to the Holy Spirit who is together in the Trinity.
The Holy Spirit is clearly God Himself in the Trinity. And as long as Kenosis is the self-emptying nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ and of God the creator, it can be said that this also applies to the Holy Spirit in the Trinity. And this understanding is clearly proclaimed in the theology of the Spirit of Youngsan theology.
The purpose of this thesis is to classify Myung Chik Lee’s understanding and practice about divine healing into the 1920s, 1930s, and 1950s to identify the process of change and its characteristics from historical perspective. Previously, the studies on the divine healing of Myung Chik Lee were centered on books published after the 1950s. These studies did not reflect the process of forming Myung Chik Lee’s understanding on divine healing before the 1950s. Myung Chik Lee showed the process of changes in his understanding and practice of divine healing several times from 1920s to 1950s. This study deals with the process of changing Myung Chik Lee’s understanding on divine healing.
In the 1920s, Myung Chik Lee actively sought divine healing and the results were also revealed. But there was no record of any results in prayer for divine healing in the 1930s. In the 1950s, there was not even a record of the prayer for divine healing. It displays that his practice of divine healing has gradually diminished, and along with this his emphasis on divine healing has also been weakened. This change was due to the lack of results of divine healing, as well as the practice of pseudo divine healing ministers and heresy healing practice. His understanding of divine healing has also changed with time, and his understanding of the disease causation has widened over time.
The methodology of this study is literature research. During most of his life, Myung Chik Lee wrote many writings on the Living Waters including some related to divine healing. In addition, Myung Chik Lee left several works, and there are some writings related to divine healing. Basing on the recording times, these writings will be analyzed to track the changes in Myung Chik Lee’s understanding and practice about divine healing.
신유 이해와 실천, 이명직 목사, 사중복음, 질병의 원인, 활천, 한국성결교회, understanding and practice of divine healing, Rev, Myung Chik Lee, Four Fold Gospel, disease causation, Living Waters, Korea Evangelical Holiness Church
The Religious Understanding of Life and Death: As Viewed through Confucianism, Buddhism, and Christianity 삶과 죽음에 대한 종교적 이해: 불교, 유교, 기독교를 중심으로
Life and death are connected in terms of a religious point of view because awareness of the meaning of life demands a clear understanding of death. Confucianism passively receives death as the will of heaven and thus emphasizes that we have to focus on the current life. Buddhism advocates transmigration which claims that life and death repeat continuously by karma. Without transcending the cycle of life and death, the transmigration continues. On the contrary, Christianity integrates the meaning of life and death through the crucifixion of Christ. Therefore, Christianity produces hope for both the current world and the coming world.
The emphasis on the current life in Confucianism, transmigration based on karma in Buddhism, and the integration of life and death in Christianity all make ethical designates. Thus, the three religions serve as fundamental spiritual bases to make the current life meanigful in this world. However, it is dangerous to ignore the sinful nature of human beings as in Confucianism and Buddhism, which affirm the existence of humanity from a positive perspective. Theological anthropology does not ignore the reality of human life which requires the incarnation of Christ in Christianity. Therefore, Korean churches keep the balance between the text and the context and conduct social responsibilities by the sense of balance between life in this world and the coming world.
삶, 죽음, 불교, 유교, 기독교, 종교적 이해, life, death, Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, religious understanding
A Critical Understanding On Paul’s New Perspectives on Justification: Focused on The Structure of Scientific Revolutions and 4th Dimensional Spirituality 새관점주의에 대한 비평적 이해와 제언: 과학혁명 구조와 4차원 영성을 중심으로
The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the New Perspective on Paul (NPP) in terms of its view on justification and to further suggest the newly conceptualized theory of justification extracted from Youngsan’s 4th Dimensional Spirituality as a theological and practical alternative to this debate.
In essence, the rationale for NPP is insufficient in comparison to the widely accepted concept of justification that was introduced by Luther 500 years ago. However the reformative justification which has been formed through many years is being replaced by the justification of NPP which insists new and challenging theories.
The NPP formed so far is divided into two. One is the rediscovery of first-century Judaism, and the other is the reinterpretation of Paul’s theory of justification. The thesis attempted to criticize the justification of NPP with the logic and concreteness of the structure of scientific revolution, and ultimately to defend the theory of reformative justification. As such, the uncritical recognition of NPP exhibits a potential danger to the church.
In order to get a full understanding of NPP and its movement, a review of E. P. Sanders, James D. G. Dunn, and N. T. Wright’s interpretation of Paul’s justification concepts is necessary. Accordingly, this study includes their comparative evaluation and thought processes which may have a potential impact on the existing church. We will also critically explore NPP’s theology as well as its view on justification using Thomas S. Kuhn’s model of Scientific Revolution. In order for a newly discovered scientific theory to be recognized and accepted, a “paradigm shift” needs to occur. Likewise, in the theological realm, a “paradigm shift” is necessary for a newly discovered theological concept to be accepted and to replace the traditional concepts.
Lastly, this study is committed to suggest the justification model from Youngsan’s 4th Dimensional Spirituality as an alternative to the current debate surrounding the concept of justification, and furthermore, in keeping with Pentecostal theology, to be used as a manual that can be applied to our spiritual and everyday life.
새 관점, 칭의론, 과학혁명 구조, 4차원의 영성, 패러다임, new perspective, justification, the Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 4th Dimensional Spirituality, paradigm
A Study on Dan Kimball’s Ecclesiology and Future Korean Emerging Church 댄 킴볼(Dan Kimball)의 교회론과 한국적 이머징 교회 연구
The purpose of this research is to examine the paradigm of the Emerging Church Movement in the United States, as well as the significant contributions it can make in the context of Korean society during the Fourth Industrial Revolution, or the so-called post-COVID era. This research also examines the applicability of the emerging church in the Korean context through the ecclesiology of Dan Kimball, a representative figure of the emerging church movement. The 4th Industrial Revolution has rapidly changed the world in all fields, but the church remains insensitive to changes through time and generations. The church has lost its presence in society by becoming a relic of the past, and has lost its identity as a positive influence to society and culture. In addition, the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has greatly influenced Korea’s processes of changing political, economic, and social culture in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The fundamental nature of the church should not be changed, but the methodologies and forms of ministry have changed with the times. This research reinterprets the Korean church from the perspective of an emerging theology and examines changes in the pastoral field. The thesis is organized as follows. First, Dan Kimball’s ecclesiology is introduced. The writer examines worship, preaching, evangelism, and nurturing in the Vintage Faith Church where Kimball currently serves. The second part analyzes the churches that lead the New Emerging Generation in the post-COVID era through the emerging church movement in the Korean context and evaluates the feasibility of these churches’ methods. Third, the writer provides practical suggestions for the pastoral care, mission, worship, and preaching for the emerging generation and the era of the “new normal.” The Korean church needs to be transformed from the old paradigm to the new in the midst of rapid changes in the world. This research is intended to support Korean churches which face challenges so that the new emerging generation may experience God through the church, encourage a proactive life in Jesus, and inspire the vision of a missional life.
댄 킴볼, 이머징 교회, 뉴 이머징 세대, 뉴노멀, 언택트, 포스트 코로나, 4차 산업혁명 시대, 선교, Dan Kimball, Emerging Church, New Emerging Generation, New Normal, Un-tact, post Corona, 4th Industrial Revolution Era, mission
영산신학저널 제55호 논문 게재자 주요 경력(게재순)
55(0) 240-247, 2021
영산신학저널 제55호 논문 게재자 주요 경력(게재순)
DOI: Vol.55(No.0) 240-247, 2021
영산신학저널 제55호 : 2021-2022년 『영산신학저널』 논문 투고
55(0) 247-247, 2021
영산신학저널 제55호 : 2021-2022년 『영산신학저널』 논문 투고
DOI: Vol.55(No.0) 247-247, 2021
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