Christians are not the only ones persecuted in the world today. But nevertheless, 75% of the religious persecution is aimed at Christians. So Charles Tieszen argues that “Christians are the single most widely persecuted religious group in the world today.” He also mentioned, following Johnson and Crossing’s view, that the twentieth century was the ‘bloodiest century’ especially with regard to Christian martyrdom, but in the twenty-first century about 100,000 Christians were already martyred by 2013, and this trend is expected to increase.
Regarding the tendency of Christian persecution, Open Doors broadly categorized three trends: 1) the spread of ‘state’ authoritarianism, 2) Christian exclusion by the government based on ultra-strong nationalism, 3) spread of radical Islamic forces from the Middle East to the sub-Saharan. Among these three categories the most persistent and brutal persecution of Christians is occurring in Muslim areas. In view of this, this study investigated the current state of persecution, the main causes, and the ways of help proposed by Lausanne for the persecuted Christians in the Islamic world.
For this purpose this paper referred largely to the articles named Lausanne Global Analysis published by Lausanne to find out the ways to help for the persecuted Christians. But I went a step further and looked at the missing parts of the Lausanne documents and explored the fundamental solutions. Such research is expected to contribute in part to helping brothers and sisters of faith who are undergoing a serious persecution situation at this moment.
This paper analyzed the regions in which Cosmas recorded the spread of Christianity in Chapter 65-66 of the third volume of Christian Topography. He met Aba Mar in the 520s and accepted the doctrines of the Nestorians. In this book, he first described the Taphrobane, Malle and Calliana, and Dioskorides which were evangelized by the Persian Church. There the Nestorian Church was working. Next, it pays attention to the area of Eastern Christianity by describing that the gospel was spread to the whole Sassanian Persia and to the Bactrians and Huns. Then he describes the spread of the gospel to eastern and northern Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Palestine and Mesopotamia, Minor Asia and the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, the Balkan and the peoples around the Mediterranean. When he mentions these regions, he explains that the Lord’s word that the gospel of resurrection will be preached all over the world has been fulfilled. As such, Cosmas has taken an interest in the Persian churches where the Nestorian Doctrines was propagated, but it goes beyond it and exerts an ecumenical spirit that records every region where the gospel is propagated. His record persuasively shows that he had a much broader world vision than church historians writing in the East Roman Empire in the 5th century who only were interested in the Roman Empire’s church history. However, he reveals through Sopatros’ anecdote that he places more importance on the Christianized East Roman Empire than the unchristianized Persian Empire.
In the twentieth century, the cross relics were unearthed in Taprobane, where Buddhism developed, and debate over the time of its production took place. Initially, it is alleged that the cross was made after the Portuguese arrived. However, based on the writing of Cosmas, it was found that the crosses excavated in Taprobane had characteristics of Eastern Christianity around the sixth century. These crosses are characterized by the appearance of the leaves rising up, the pearl shape at the end of the cross decoration, and a three-story staircase at the bottom. The excavation of these crosses revealed that Cosmas’ description of Taprobane was correct.
코스마스, 기독교 지형학, 기독교, 박트리아, 훈족, 타프로바네, Cosmas, Christian Topography, Christianity, Bactria, Huns, Taprobane
A Study on the Early Christianity Community (Acts 4:31-37) 초기 기독교 공동체에 대한 연구: 사도행전 4:31-37을 중심으로
This paper examines the ways in which the early Christian community emerged and fulfilled its mission, based on Acts 4:31-37. In order to examine this issue, I focused on the main characters in the text. Important figures that constituted the early Christian community were the Christian believers, the apostles, and Barnabas. In the community, there was no one who claimed for their own private possessions, so that they could share things with one another in common. This is a clear evidence that the Kingdom of God was fully realized in the early Christian community by the proclamation of the Gospel.
The apostles mediated the divine grace to all who belonged to the community by wonder and power, and the believers rejoiced. In response, the members of the community, including Barnabas, were motivated to sell their property and brought the money to the apostles, so that it might be distributed to anyone in need. The apostles had authority over believers as they exercised the spiritual power to testify the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The divine power has been further expressed as a source of the “miracles and signs”(Acts 2:43), which aims to identify Jesus as the Messiah. Various miracles the apostles performed as a vehicle of proclaiming Jesus as the Messiah became a solid foundation for them to live with authority in the Christian community. In particular, Barnabas was a Levite whose ancestors served as priests without possessing land. Barnabas seems to have made a living in the farming field even though he had the priesthood lineage. After he heard the Gospel, he gave up his estate for common distribution, reclaimed his priesthood, and lived to preach the gospel. The early Christian community was thus composed of faithful members who fulfilled their own roles according to what they had. Since they were so faithful to their assigned duties, the kingdom of God could come true in the early Christian community.
초기 기독교 공동체, 바나바, 회복, 성령, 소유, Early Christian Community, Barnabas, Restoration, Holy Spirit, Property
The Healing of Isaiah and Youngsan’s Understanding of Isaiah 53 이사야서의 치유와 영산의 이사야 53장 해석
This paper, primarily investigating the texts on “healing” in the Book of Isaiah, attempts to grasp the inherent meanings of the “healing” texts in Isaiah. The study also seeks to examine what Youngsan has stated on his “healing theology” in Isaiah 53. With these two attempts, this paper aims to present the comparison of the perspectives of healing in Isaiah’s texts with Youngsan’s pastoral applications to them and, at the same time, an appropriate direction of healing.
The vision of healing in Isaiah, revealed through an exegetical study, presupposes the negative social evils and national disasters experienced by ancient Israel. Isaiah defines these negative situations as ‘diseases.’ As a way of solving such diseases, Isaiah offers repentance and renewal of one’s relationship with Yahweh, the healer of Israel. They will then enable Israel to experience social healing and to enjoy peace and prosperity. This is what Isaiah has argued about healing.
Youngsan has conducted a practical healing ministry based on his own healing experience and understanding of the Bible as a pastor. The message that he has constantly delivered is that one will be able to be healed from a physical illness with the belief in the good God who let his Son, Jesus Christ die on the cross. He argues that physical healing must be included in the core content of the Christian gospel.
In addition to acknowledging the physical healing of an individual in the grace of Jesus Christ, we need to broaden the vision of biblical healing through that in Isaiah. It can be stated that healing theology is to be more desirable when it encompasses correlations among international conflicts, social injustice, and the consequent diseases of individuals, and when it takes the paths toward the world and individuals, both of which are properly healed as God desires.
치유, 이사야서의 치유, 영산의 치유 신학, 이사야서, 영산 신학, Healing, Healing in the Book of Isaiah, Youngsan’s Healing Theology, The Book of Isaiah, Youngsan Theology
Luther’s Reformation: Critical Reception of Augustine 아우구스티누스의 비평적 수용으로 본 루터의 종교개혁
There is hardly a theologian from the Middle Ages who did not refer to Augustine in relation to tradition. Beyond doubt, Augustine was always seen as a representative of unity and in its orthodox theological form. For nearly all medieval writers, Augustine’s reputation has stood as an expression of the wealth of western theology. At the same time, he serves as a guarantor of theological knowledge. Likewise, Luther acknowledged Augustine as an important authority throughout his life. It is testified in Luther’s rich mention in his entire work. In the Lectures on Romans, Luther goes on to criticize scholastic theology, though he is fully aware of his own opposition to it. It was only in the letter to the Romans that Luther used Augustine’s anti-Pelagian writings on a larger scale. Augustine encouraged and accompanied Luther on carrying out his idea. This phase of a reform based on Augustine has become crucial for Luther’s biblical theology. Examining Augustine’s criticism toward scholasticism is a necessary prerequisite to determine the relationship between Luther and Augustine. Nevertheless, Luther does not recklessly embrace Augustine just because they have in common a condemnation on scholastic theology. Luther found helpful an understanding of Paul in Augustine’s theological works. Luther placed top priority on the Word of God, and accordingly interpreted and accepted Augustine’s ideas properly. After all, the respect that Luther paid to the church throughout his life was based on the principle of sola scriptura.
루터, 아우구스티누스, 은총의 박사, 전통, 오직 성서로만, 권위, Luther, Augustine, Doctor gratiae, Tradition, Sola Scriptura, Authority
The Angelology and Demonology Examined by Evangelical Point of View: The Purpose of Satan and Winning in Spiritual Warfare 복음주의 관점으로 조명한 천사론과 귀신론: 사탄의 목적과 영적 전쟁의 승리
This study examined the nature, the roles of angels and the betrayal of Satan, who is the leader of fallen angels (i.e. demons). The roles of angels written in the Bible include worshiping and serving God, foretelling important events such as the birth of Jesus, leading people of God, and punishing the evil. In short, the function of angels are centered on praising the glory of God and showing His glory to the world. Satan, who opposes God and pursues the power of the world, has many names such as the dragon, the ancient serpent, the devil, or Satan. The main goal of Satan is to steal the glory of God but, as merely a creature, it is impossible for Satan to take His glory. Thus, Satan tries to tempt human beings, who are created in the image of God, so that they might commit sins. In the midst of tempting, deceiving, accusing humanity, Satan spoils the bearers of God’s image and blames God. Therefore, the basic way to take victory in spiritual warfare is to defend us by the Word of God and defeat Satan and demons by His Word. Another way to win in spiritual warfare is to utilize the power and authority of Jesus Christ, who saved humanity on the cross, and to rely on the Holy Spirit, who helps us and sanctifies us throughout the journey of faith.
복음주의 관점, 천사론, 귀신론, 사탄의 목적, 영적 전쟁, Evangelical Point of View, Angelology, Demonology, the Purpose of Satan, Spiritual Warfare
The Theological and Hermeneutical Function of Isaiah 61 within the Book of Isaiah: With Special Reference to the Semantic Field of Righteousness 이사야서에서 이사야 61장의 해석학적 역할: 공의(ṣedeq)의 의미론적 뉘앙스를 중심으로
This study attempts to investigate the theological and hermeneutical function of Isaiah 61 in the Book of Isaiah as a whole by examining diverse semantic fields of righteousness (□□□□)(hereinafter, righteousness). In the Book of Isaiah, righteousness plays a significant role in forming the messages of the eschatological restoration, salvation, and glory of Yahweh’s people in Zion. Another remarkable function of righteousness lies in depicting the righteous reign of God over his people and all creature. In spite of its theological and hermeneutical importance, however, righteousness has not received the attention it deserves from Isaianic scholarship. Additionally, even though Isaiah 61 as a passage has received particular attention by scholars for several reasons, its theological and hermeneutical function within the Book of Isaiah has not been properly explored so far in the interpretative history. In order to achieve the objective mentioned above, this study aims to scrutinize literary and theological aspects of the righteousness not only in Isaiah 61, but also in major texts of the Book of Isaiah (1, 11, 45, and 66). The discussion on the righteousness in Isaiah 61 includes the sub-semantic fields as follows: the righteous life of God’s people in Zion, God’s righteous rule, salvation, glory, and the new creation. Then, diverse sub-themes of the righteousness demonstrated in Isaiah 1, 11, 45, and 66 will be traced as well. Locating the righteousness of Isaiah 61 within the coherent development of the sub-themes of the righteousness in Isaiah 1, 11, 45, and 66 will prove that the righteousness in Isaiah 61 not only reflects the righteousness in Isaiah 1, 11, and 45 retrospectively, but also foreshadows the same motif in Isaiah 66 prospectively. In other words, it validates that Isaiah 61 provides the integral crux as “a mirror-text” to help us interpret the macro-righteousness theme in the Book of Isaiah as a whole.
공의, 이사야 61장, 미러 텍스트 이론, 정의, 구원, 영광, 새 창조, Righteousness, Isaiah 61, Mirror-Text, Justice, Salvation, Glory, New Creation
On the Holy Spirit: Focused on the Cappadocian Fathers and Youngsan 성령에 관하여: 갑바도기아 교부들과 영산을 중심으로
The Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (A.D. 381) put an end to the Trinitarian controversies by stating that “the Holy Spirit, Who proceeds (ἐκπορευόμενον) from the Father, Who with (σὺν) the Father and the Son is together worshiped and equally glorified.” The Holy Spirit who participated in the creation with the Father and the Son was sent with the Son from the Father for the salvific work. The Spirit has always existed from the beginning of the Annunciation of Jesus, his public life, and the Cross/Resurrection-events to the Ascension. However, the Latin Church, also known as the Western Church rooted in the tradition of Augustinus made the Spirit’s role and work constricted by stressing the portrait of Jesus as the Savior who made the full and complete redemption at once. This Christ-penchant fails to demonstrate appropriately the splendid theo-drama of the Trinity.
Fortunately the twenty century brought in many changes. The influx of Greek theology and remarkable growth of Pentecostalism represented good examples for it. Here the Spirit is the common factor in both cases. The former, compared with the Latin, shows its tendency that the Spirit is the perfector to finish the salvific work. The latter refers to the determining cause of the dynamic work of the Spirit.
In this light, it is a clearly meaningful task to examine both the Trinitarian Pneumatology through the Cappadocian Fathers in the 4th century who established the orthodox Trinitarian foundation and Rev. Yonggi Cho (hereafter ‘Youngsan’) who has led the Korean Pentecostal movement in the twenty-first century. Especially Youngsan’s works have contributed to building sound doctrine of the Trinity in the context of the Latin/Korean theology by placing the significance of the marginalized doctrine of the Spirit at the heart of the church and people. Exploring in which they lay their emphases on in order to convince the Holy Spirit’s divinity, this article will attempt to promote Trinitarian understanding on the one hand and investigate the needs of its further developments.
The purpose of this article is to show the life and thought of Yoon-Bae Choi. He was born in Yeongyang-gun on December 28, 1955. Being born in an unbelieving family, he became a Christian with a “sudden conversion” in a Sunday worship Service at Dongshin Church in Seoul. Six years later, he received a calling to become a pastor in order to preach the Gospel. After finishing M.Div. and Th.M. from Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary, he went to study theology in the Netherlands and got the degree of Ph.D. The title of his dissertation was “The Relation between Christ and Holy Spirit by Martin Bucer and John Calvin.” Yoon-Bae Choi seeks harmony between faith and knowledge, piety and science.
He has pursued integrative and comprehensive theology from the perspective of the Presbyterian tradition based on the theology of Martin Bucer and John Calvin from modern theology to conservative theology and liberal theology. He established a Presbyterian identity according to the regulative principles of the Bible. He united Word-Office and Essence-Policy. According to him, Christ and the Holy Spirit have an inseparable relation. As the bearer of the Holy Spirit, Christ worked on this earth three offices as Prophet, Priest, and King. As the sender of the Holy Spirit, Christ works presently three offices in Heaven. Both the Holy Spirit and the Word of God as well as both the Holy Spirit and the Church are inseparable, but the Holy Spirit is more important than the Word and the Church. Yoon-Bae Choi understands the order of salvation as theological and logical, not as chronological and stepwise. He supports limited atonement in the matter of atonement. But he is open for the position of other church traditions.