Incheon was a place where the left wing was strong enough to be called the Moscow of Korea in the post-liberation political context. Here, Lee Seung Yeop and Jo Bong Am were involved in communist activities from the time of the Japanese occupation. Kim Yong Gyu, Park Nam Chil, Lee Bo Un who were Naeri Churchmen worked with them. When Korea received liberation, they organized Security Guards, Preparation Committee for National Construction, and the People’s Committee. Among these, the pastor Kim Young Seop, Chung Hae Gung, Choi Jin Ha, Ha Sang Hoon, and Lee Bum Jin were the main members of the Naeri Church. They organized the National Assembly and the Incheon branch of the Korea Democratic Party. Left-wing and right-wing forces clashed over the provisional government welcoming ceremony and writing of a declaration against the trusteeship.
In 1946, the Left Wing organized the Democratic National Front and the Right Wing organized the Incheon branch of Society for the Rapid Realization of Korean Independence. These were conducted in conjunction with the events of the March First Movement in 1946, but the 8.15 commemorative event which was hosted by Incheon City proceeded without the participation of the left-wing organizations. The Left Wing organized the Workers’ Party of South Korea in January 1947, and in 1947, the March First Movement commemoration was held by the left and right wings separately. In the process, the left strike was conducted in March. In the process, key figures such as Kim Yong Gyu, Park Nam Chil, and Lee Bo Un were arrested and the left forces weakened soon afterwards. The left wings insisted on a peoples democracy to the end and could not participate in the establishment of the nation in opposition to the US Military Government. Right-wing members such as Ha Sang Hoon and Kwak Sang Hoon participated in the general election in May 1948, which constituted a liberal democratic government.
내리교회, 우파, 좌파, 한국민주당, 대한독립촉성국민회, 인민위원회, 남로당, Naeri Church, Right Wing, Left Wing, Korea Democratic Party, Society for the Rapid Realization of Korean Independence, People’s Council, Workers’ Party of South Korea
Comparative Study of the Fourfold Gospel of the Korean Holiness Church and Youngsan’s Fivefold Gospel 성결교회의 사중복음과 영산의 오중복음 비교
In a comparison between Youngsan’s Fivefold Gospel and the Fourfold Gospel of the Korean Holiness Church, we see that both have triple types in the Gospel of Regeneration, Divine Healing, and Second Coming, and they generally show no difference, however, there are some differences in the types of Holiness and Gospel of the Fullness of the Holy Spirit in addition to the Gospel of Blessings of Youngsan. The Pentecostal Movement began from the nineteenth-century Holiness Movement, but as the Pentecostal Movement and the Holiness Movement show differences, Youngsan and Korea Holiness Church show similar and different doctrinal identities at the same time. While both the Korean Holiness Church and Youngsan are equally related to baptism in terms of an emphasis on the second grace of Pentecost, and use the word “baptism,” Youngsan shows an advanced and progressive aspect that emphasizes “the Fullness of the Holy Spirit,” which is the refilling of the holy spirit up to the next course without staying in the instant experience, “Baptism in the Holy Spirit” unlike the Korean Holiness Church.
However, while each of the parties has retained the Fourfold Gospel and the Fivefold Gospel to this day, there is no difference in emphasizing, teaching Full Gospel, that is Full Gospel Theology based on the essence of the Gospel. And both are based on a biblical view of the Gospel.
사중복음, 오중복음, 순복음, 중생, 성결, 성령세례, 성령충만, 신유, 재림, Fourfold Gospel, Fivefold Gospel, Full Gospel, Regeneration, Holliness, Baptism in the Holy Spirit, Fullness of the Spirit, Divine Healing, Second Coming
Paradigm of Pentecostal Experience 오순절주의적 경험의 패러다임
This study, through researching how Pentecostal understands experience in terms of epistemology, is to debate the paradigm of experience that the Pentecostalism should aim for. In general, “Experience” is understood as a very simple concept referring to information that humans get from facing something. However, it is not easy to define this in case of discussing with a philosophical or theological problem, especially as an ontology or epistemological problem. First problem comes from the reliability of the experience information that occurs between the subject and the object. The second problem comes from differences in understanding of “human reason” that operate within the realm of experience. Even in Christianity believing in the same object theological opinions on experiences are divided because of the vague understanding of the reliability of experiences and its related human reason. Although Christian theology is based on a position of theism, the study of understanding the experience of God as a transcendental being seems to be a vague cohabitation with a Kantistic view of reason recognizing the limit of human reasoning for transcendence, and seems to be trying not to escape the rational approach focused on this rational knowledge. Therefore, this study pays attention to the understanding of the Pentecostal experience as an alternative to this problem. Because experience from this point of view has a real evidence to ensure the ontological and epistemological credibility of the information that occurs between the subject and the object, especially in terms of epistemology, human reason can recognize transcendental existence. If we recognize and develop the theological value of the transcendental understanding of experiences of Pentecostalism, we will gain a positive result in the transformation of the open perception of spiritual experiences from a rigid perception of transcendental existence widespread in Christianity.
The purpose of this paper is to properly understand the homogeneous unit principle and to explore where it can function in pastoral ministry. To this end, I first examine what exactly was the principle advocated by Donald A. McGavran and other early church growth scholars, as well as the arguments of critical scholars; I then endeavor to reveal its theological and practical meaning. The homogeneous unit principle implies the formation of a homogeneous unit church by unbelievers, wherein they do not have to cross their sociocultural barriers when they want to follow Jesus Christ. Critics argue that the principle encourages discrimination, based on the fact that the Bible teaches the unity of diverse groups in Christ. But this principle is inherently not an absolute concept applicable to every situation, but rather an instrumental concept used for God’s mission. Furthermore this principle should be applied when unbelievers come to Jesus, and used in conjunction with the heterogeneous unit principle required of mature Christians. While local churches should seek to be homogeneous unit churches, the church at a broader level, such as a denomination, should make an effort to be conglomerate congregations.
동질집단의 원리, 이질집단의 원리, 동질집단형 교회, 혼합형 교회, 교회성장, 도널드 맥가브란, Homogeneous Unit Principle, Heterogeneous Unit Principle, Homogeneous Unit Church, Conglomerate Congregation, Church Growth, Donald A. McGavran
The purpose of this study is to reveal how the ideas of God’s Kingdom in Calvin’s theology appear and what its characteristics are. This study summarizes Calvin’s view of the Kingdom of God in three dimensions. They are: God’s Kingdom and believer, God’s Kingdom and church, and God’s Kingdom and the world. First, God’s Kingdom and believer is a soteriological level of God’s Kingdom. Salvation is to participate in the grace of justification which is to forgive and to justify and the grace of sanctification which is new in nature and life. Second is God’s Kingdom and church. Calvin’s concept of God’s Kingdom is characterized by “already” and “not yet.” God’s Kingdom’s present state is related to the visible church, and the future state is related to the invisible church. The visible church waits for eschatological achievement. According to Calvin, the Kingdom of God exists both inside and outside the church. Third is God’s Kingdom and the world. God’s Kingdom and the world define the relationship between the church and the state. They are distinct but not separate. The church is the soul of the state, and the state is the body of the church. According to Calvin, Christ is not only the Lord of the Church and the believer excluded from the world, but the Lord of all things, including both reigns, and both states.
하나님의 나라, 성화, 교회, 국가, 세상, God’s Kingdom, Sanctification, Church, State, World
A Constructive Theological Study of Contemporary Pentecostal Theology as a Counter-Culture Spiritual Movement Against Contemporary Secular Culture 현대 세속문화의 대항문화 형성을 위한 오순절 신학의 방향과 역할 고찰
The goal of this study is to present the constructive approach to Pentecostal theology and its distinctive reality in terms of a new counter-culture that opposes contemporary secular culture, especially the process of globalization. In this line of thinking, this study has two obvious premises: first, a Pentecostal theology can be considered as a global religious movement; and second, contemporary Pentecostal theology is at the crossroads to choose a path to become more holistic theology in a way of faithfully theologizing its distinctive spiritual affections(experiences) in the context of making spiritual movement, and, at the same time, deal with some social-political and cultural-religious problems which need to be addressed with some legitimate solutions. This study, thus, seeks to analyze the nature and reality of contemporary Pentecostal theology and present some theological paradigms to how the Pentecostal theology can interpret contemporary issues. In addition, it also attempts to provide appropriate theological reflections to meet the needs of people in today’s world.
In this light, this study attempts to explore the meaning and role of contemporary Pentecostal theology and present possible theological model which constructively based on both a balanced biblical foundation and Pentecostal reality and heritage. This provides more adequate and suitable spiritual movement with some theological flexibility. In doing so, it shares some distinctive theological findings of Pentecostal reality for the purpose of establishing and revitalizing the life and ministry of Jesus Christ and the empowerment of the Holy Spirit as a remedy for our world in the light of God’s Kingdom’s perspective. Finally, the study gives some conclusive thoughts which construe theological tasks with the directions and trajectory for the future development and practice of Pentecostal theology in present time.
This study examined the understanding of church and the church planting ministry of Reverend Jashil Choi. Her church planting ministry began with serving local orphans, prompting the necessity to care for spiritual orphans as she watched over. She then planted a church with her son-in-law, Reverend Yonggi Cho based on a firm belief that only the sovereignty of God would enable them to build a church. As she preached the gospel and casted out demons from people in suffering, she reaffirmed the power of Jesus Christ over the devils and found that the cooperation with the Holy Spirit is an indispensable factor for both church planting and church growth.
The church planting of Rev. Choi can be classified as a pioneer model, self-establishing model, or an individual model, due to the fact that she and Rev. Cho bore every burden of planting the church. In the midst of church growth, she faced slander throughout her ministry, but she overcame with fasting prayer. She concluded that all human help is useless, while only the power of prayer resolves all issues that a minister faces. She particularly emphasized the importance of prayer and stated that prayer is the only way to initiate church planting. In addition, she noted it was absolutely imperative to remind church planters of the genuine depth and meaning of the gospel.
According to Rev. Choi, church planting is the ministry of following God’s will, since a church planter should heed the call from God and fully commit. Thus, church planting begins with a clear call from God, equipping a church planter with the love and passion of preaching the gospel, and the required obedience to God. In other words, the first step of church planting is seeking God’s will through prayer. Upon receiving such willpower, a church planter will realize the will of God as they hold the essence of church, whose head is Christ and guidance is directed by the Holy Spirit.
최자실 목사, 교회론, 교회개척, 교회의 본질, 기도의 중요성, 성령의 인도, Reverend Jashil Choi, Ecclesiology, Church Planting, the Essence of Church, the Importance of Prayer, the Guidance of the Holy Spirit
A Study of the Spiritual Ministry for the Reconciliation: Solution for the Conflict in the Church 화해에 대한 영성 목회적 고찰: 교회 내 갈등해결을 중심으로
There are many reasons for the decline on the reliable evaluation of the Korean church. Conflict and the division of the churches is identified as one of the most important reasons for this decline. Specially, the larger churches are more often than not involved in lawsuits because of the inability to solve issues on their own. Therefore, the social image of the church is damaged by the reports spread through mass media. Often, church leaders lack skill for reconciliation and instead they depend on the law of the world. This lack of skill is not only the cause of damage to the holy image of the church, but also the setback of growth in Korean society.
The duty of the Korean church is to answer the calling from God to fulfill God’s shalom in the Korean peninsula in order to reunify the Koreas. Thus, believers have to be the peace-makers in the world to be lighthouses that shine hope of reconciliation. The purpose of this study is to understand the concept of the conflict and the reconciliation, not only to prevent and to control the situation, but also to develop the spirituality required of reconciliation. A basis of this analysis is to fully grasp the term ‘conflict’, especially from a biblical perspective. After analyzing the causes of inner conflicts in Korean churches, research on biblical, psychological, spirituality, and theological understanding was provided in the article. In conclusion, this study suggests feasible avenues for establishing spiritual ministry in solving this conflict, as well as the required spiritual training for developing the spirituality of reconciliation. Such training includes baptism by the Holy Spirit and professional training for conflict resolution(CR) in the churches.
Riemann’s theory, published in 1961, has profoundly influenced not only psychology but also the field of psychiatry. According to his theory, the basic forms of personality is classified into four categories: a schizophrenic personality as an inclination to want to get into oneself; a depressive personality as an inclination to want to get out of oneself; an obsessive personality that thinks of a certain content to be continued; and a hysterical personality that thinks of a certain thing not to be continued.
In 1979, Denecke applied Riemann’s theory to homiletics. He divided preachers into four types according to Riemann’s four categories of personality: a responsible preacher of order, a chameleonic preacher of freedom, a profound preacher of knowledge, an empathetic preacher of love. Using the story of shepherds in the second chapter of Luke’s Gospel, Denecke discerns which type a preacher is. The shepherds’ story has four emphases. If a preacher looks at which of the four points of emphasis in the story, she/he has highlighted in her/his sermon, she/he will see her/his inclination of preaching and she/he can develop her/his strengths.
The main goal of this article is to analyze Youngsan’s sermon on the story of shepherds in Luke’s Gospel based on theories of Riemann and Denecke. This analyzing can be a new attempt to investigate Youngsan’s sermons with a new homiletical method that is well known in German homiletics and has been studied a lot. However, this study has a limitation that it does not take all Youngsan’s sermons into account except the sermon of the shepherds. Nevertheless, it can be a proper contribution to explain why Youngsan’s sermon is good in terms of systematic detailed analysis.
조용기, 프리츠 리만, 악셀 데네케, 인성, 설교자, Yonggi Cho, Fritz Riemann, Axel Denecke, Personality, Preacher
The Theological and Hermeneutical Function of 1 Kings 17:17-24 within 1 Kings 17-19 in Light of the Motif of Death 열왕기상 17-19장의 문맥 속에서 본 열왕기상 17:17-24의 신학적/해석학적 기능: 죽음 모티프를 중심으로
This paper aims to investigate the significant functions and meaning of 1 Kings 17:17-24 and its theological implication. An argument has been made by recent scholarship that the literary structure of 1 Kings 17:17-24 remarkably shows its thematic and structural unity with a special focus on the central motif of “the contest between the Lord and Baal.” However, whereas the strife between Elijah and Baal’s prophets on Mount Carmel has attracted most interest of researchers, the revival of the widow’s son in 1 Kings 17:17-24, which can be considered the pivotal episode of the motif of death, has gained relatively limited attention. This study thus attempts to examine the literary and theological functions of the motif of death described in 1 Kings 17:17-24. It will argue that the motif of death in the given section plays a crucial role in exhibiting a double thematic movement: 1) the movement of crisis: from death to life; and 2) the movement of the widow’s faith: from disbelieving hostility to a confession of faith. Furthermore, the research will assert that the three episodes in 1 Kings 17 function as “preliminary rounds,” foreshadowing the full-fledged confrontation between Elijah and Ahab (eventually, between Yahweh and Baal) on Mount Carmel. In particular, the last episode, that is, 1 Kings 17:17-24 serves to announce the imminence of the major conflict. The episode firstly confirms that Yahweh is the ruler of life and death. Moreover, it functions to legitimate Elijah as the prophet of God prior to Elijah’s pivotal contest with Ahab on Mount Carmel. In conclusion, 1 Kings 17:17-24 illustrates that Yahweh is the only God by revealing explicitly that Yahweh, not Baal, is the provider of life and master of all that is happening.
열왕기상 17:17-24, 열왕기상 17-19장, 엘리야, 죽음 모티프, 예언자적 적법성, 사르밧 과부, 1 Kings 17:17-24, 1 Kings 17-19, Elijah, the Motif of Death, Prophetic Legitimacy, a Widow at Zarephat
A Study of Fichte’s Late Philosophy of Religion 피히테의 후기 종교철학 연구
This research is an analysis of post-Fichte’s idealistic philosophy of religion, and in Korea the first work to examine Fichte’s theory of the absolute, which laid the basis for the historical theory of German idealism. Starting with Schelling and Hegel’s critical thesis on the issues of cognition derived from the identity and subjectivity of self-consciousness advocated in the early theories, the scope of the study is to analyze the moral and religious views of the 1800 book “The Vocation of Man” and then to examine mainly the doctrine of God issued from “The Guide to the Blessed Life” a collection of religious lectures from the period of Berlin in 1806, and the later Die Wissenschaftslehre and the lecture of philosophy from 1813 to the last lifetime since 1810. Fichte, greatly influenced by Kant’s critique of pure reason and moral philosophy, identified the concept of God, the fundamental figure of self and intellect as a source of human morality in his later thought, based on God’s absoluteness and incomprehensibility. Since Kant, who declared that the ultimate foundation of reason in transcendental critical philosophy was object of theology in ideal, the absolute God has been the central subject of their philosophy, from Fichte to the idealism of Schelling and Hegel.
In particular, the theory of the late Fichte sets the stage for important development of thought in transcending the limits of subjective idealism based on transcendental self. If atheism and nihilism, two major criticisms of his idealistic philosophy, objectively consider later religious ideas, we can confirm that they were historically wrong prejudices. Kant’s critical philosophy, which claimed that all human perceptions begin with sensual intuition and end up forming concepts and reaching transcendental ideal, unfolded the representation of the absolute knowledge through the intellectual intuition of the absolute in Fichte’s later philosophy and led to philosophical apologetic of the clear distinction from the existence of God and the concept of phenomena. Post-Fichte’s study of religion on this philosophical theory holds an important academic value in Christian theology as well as in the field of German idealism research in the 19th century, and hopes to bring new challenges and creative applications to follow-up research projects in the future.
선험 철학, 지, 지성적 직관, 자기의식, 자기정립, 실행, 실천적 이성, 의무, 도덕법칙, 도덕질서, 절대적 자유, 사랑, 종교, Transcendental Philosophy, Knowledge, Intellectual Intuition, Self-consciousness, Self-pos-iting, Fact/Act, Practical Reason, Duty, Moral Law, Moral Order, Absolute Freedom, Love, Religion
Early Protestant Missionaries in Korea and Evangelism: Focused on Rosetta S. Hall 초기 내한 의료선교사와 전도: 로제타 홀을 중심으로
The purpose of this thesis is to study the evangelism of medical missionary in Korea, using Rosetta S. Hall as an example. The evangelism practices of evangelical missionaries in Korea has been studied to some extent within the academic world of church history, but little has been done in the case of medical evangelists. A medical missionary is an optimist for medical services as a doctor, but he did not focus solely on medical missionary work in Korean field. They tried to preach the gospel in many ways to non-Christians whenever they had the opportunity. This study focuses on the evangelistic work of a medical missionary, Rosetta S. Hall who arrived in Korea in 1890, along with other medical missionaries.
This thesis first deals with the Rosetta Hall’s understanding of evangelism. Missionaries in Korea at the time disagreed on the relationship between medicine and the gospel. Opinions were divided depending on whether medicine was an instrument of the gospel or whether medical services themselves had to be emphasized. It will determine to which of these sides Rosetta Hall belongs. It also synthesizes the records that indicate Rosetta Hall evangelized directly to non-Christians and the cases which Rosetta Hall indirectly evangelized by fostering Bible Women. This will open up an overview of the evangelistic work of Rosetta Hall in Korea.
의료선교사, 복음전도, 로제타 홀, 회개, 전도부인, Medical missionary, Evangelism, Rosetta Hall, Repentance, Bible Women
Ecumenism during 1540-41 and the Role of Martin Bucer 1540-41년의 교회연합운동과 부써의 역할
In 1540-41, Protestants and Papists had the meetings for unity in Hagenau, Worms, and Regensburg. This was the first Ecumenical Movement between other churches. The starting point of Ecumenism was the Emperor’s political will to solve the problem of the Osman Turks attack. The Reformer of Strasbourg Martin Bucer tried to overcome the present crisis of Church division using the political situation.
Bucer regarded the political purposes as vehicles for achieving religious purposes. He became the most important figure of the Protestant representatives in the meetings of Hagenau, Worms, and Regensburg, for he was granted absolute confidence from and support to the Landgrave of Hesse Philip. In this point, Bucer’s importance had a greater impact than that of Melanchthon as representative of Saxon in the political and theological areas.
Bucer was passionate enough to be mistaken as a mad man for Ecumenism. Finally, the negotiation was broken down. He should be to blame for everything of that failure from all of his fellow reformers. Why did he think so important of the Ecumenism? The Church is the one body of Christ in the theology of Bucer. Therefore, he did his best not to separate the one body into two or three.
Bucer’s criteria was not to sacrifice the main doctrines of Christianity for ecumenism. He thought that every ecumenist should have his true heart only to please God. From beginning to end, Bucer approached with a true heart to ecumenism. In this point, it is wrong to regard him as a “Fanatiker der Einheit.”
Why did the negotiations break down? Most of the Reformers including Luther watched the negotiations in a negative light out of fear to sacrifice the doctrine of faith by which we are justified. The approach of the Catholic representatives, especially John Eck, was both negative and aggressive. This negative and aggressive attitude played a role in the breakdown of negotiations. The definitive cause unexpectedly arose from different ecclesiologies, not from various views of justification.