Mysticism is an umbrella term which in religious studies, refers to particular experience of the divine, both in terms of special knowledge and union. In Christianity, this term particularly refers to the believers’ direct experience of God and their participation in God’s divinity. Often in Church history, theology based upon reason stood in conflict with the mystical experience. Some rejected spiritual mystical experience in the name of sound theology, while others criticized theology, calling it dead cold form of true faith. However, when we turn to Paul the apostle, who wrote many letters and thereby, heavily influenced the contours of the New Testament theology, we find that both theology and mystical spirituality stand together in harmony, though not without tension. Paul was trained to be a scholar in law, but was exposed to God’s glory, the resurrected Jesus, and many other mystical experiences. These mystical experiences forced him to revisit his former traditions and to interpret the scriptures anew. At the same time, his renewed understanding of God and the scriptures determined the direction of his Gentile ministry and exposed him to more spiritual experiences. In his mystical spirituality we find several distinctive characters. Paul pursued special knowledge of God, but that knowledge was focused particularly upon Jesus the crucified one. Paul pursued union with God, but that union became possible through the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of the resurrected Jesus. Moreover, for Paul the mystical knowledge of and union with God was not the ultimate goal of his spirituality. He tried to accomplish his spiritual transformation according to the image of God, which was revealed to him through Christ. Paul acknowledged that he was living in between the two ages of the imperfect present and the eschatologically perfect future. Also, his mystical spirituality was not aimed at accomplishing personal boast, but establishing the wellbeing of the communities that he had to take care of.
바울의 신비주의 영성, 예수의 신비주의 영성, 그리스도와 연합, 성령과 연합, 하나님의 영광, Paul’s Mysticism, Jesus` Mysticism, Belonging to Christ, Union with the Holy Spirit, God’s Glory
North Korea’s March First Movement Day and Christianity after Liberation 해방 후 북한의 3·1절과 기독교
After liberation, the Communist Party of North Korea tried to strengthen their political position with the March First Movement Day ceremony. They asserted that the March First movement of 1919 had failed because it was a bourgeois movement and that this ceremony following the liberation would be beginning of a truly new revolution. It was difficult for Christianity to accept this claim by the Communist Party. Christians viewed the March 1st Movement of 1919 as an independent movement of the whole nation and that the new nation should succeed its spirit.
Christians with this position did not attend the memorial ceremony hosted by the Communist Party, but on their own, they worshiped in memorial of the March First Movement. In this way, the memorial worship service held in 1946 at Jang Dae-Hyun Church marked North Korean Christians’ opposition of the communist regime. These conflicts occurred not only in Pyongyang, but also in other regions including Uiju. The memorial of March First is a day when Christians fought against communism.
When the March First Movement memorial ceremony was officially held at Pyongyang station by the North Korean Regime, Kim Il Sung was tried to be assassinated. From early 1946, South Korean nationalists thought that they should work with North Korean Christians and students to remove Kim Il Sung from power. The nationalists believed Kim Il Sung supported the Trusteeship, would establish a communist regime, and ultimately hinder reunification. This incident shocked the North Korean regime, and from then on, the regime removed March First Movement from the official ceremonies of the state.
북한 기독교, 북한 공산주의, 정치 공작대, 3·1절, 김일성, 신석구, Christianity in North Korea, North Korea Communism, Political Operation Agency, March First Movement, Kim Il Sung, Shin Seok Ku
Artificial Intelligence and Christian Ethics: A Perspective from Theological Anthropology 인공지능과 기독교윤리: 신학적 인간학의 관점에서
Looking on from a theological perspective, diverse inquiries are raised on the issue of artificial intelligence. The traditional theological human view, that humans are created according to the image of God, becomes a premise for holistic relationship between God and human beings based on the Trinity. The total depravity of humans from the Augustine or Luther’s interpretation traditions can only be recovered through God’s prevenient grace, and the hope for the kingdom of God that looks forward to the resurrection and eternal life is the essence of Christianity.
The author will maintain such theological structure and examine the theories of the artificial intelligence in the English-speaking world to arrange the following subjects from the Christian ethics’ point of view. The subjects are artificial intelligence and the crisis of theological humanity, idea of autonomy and ego in relation to the artificial intelligence, motives of the science technology that researches the artificial intelligence, issue of deification in relation to artificial intelligence and the issues of moral status of the artificial intelligence. In the conclusion, theological tasks related to the artificial intelligence will be proposed through the above topics from the Christian ethics’ point of view.
With the engineering science in the lead, many researches can also be found in the fields of humanities such as theology and religions. The author expects that, in the same context, this research will play a role of interdisciplinary communication with the field of artificial intelligence from the perspective of the Christian theology.
인공지능, 대용 도덕적 지위, 신학적 인간학, 기독교윤리, 의지, Artificial Intelligence, Ersatz Moral Status, Theological Anthropology, Christian Ethics, Will
A Study on Francis Turretin’s Reformed Orthodox Christology: Focusing on ‘the Doctrine of Jesus Christ’s Person’ 프란시스 튜레틴(Francis Turretin)의 개혁파 정통 기독론 연구: ‘예수 그리스도의 인격론’을 중심으로
In this study, at first, I briefly deal with some theological characteristics and contributions of Francis Turretin(1623-1687) who was one of the most important theologians in the 17th century ‘Protestant Scholastic Theology.’ Especially, he synthesised the ‘Reformed Orthodox Theology’ as a most elaborated doctrinal form and a developed dogmatic system in his era. And then, I also more specifically analyzed some kernel factors of Turretin’s theological arguments on ‘the Doctrine of Jesus Christ’s Person’ in his dogmatic magnum opus, Institutes of Elenctic Theology.
(1) First of all, Turretin well demonstrated that ‘Jesus of Nazareth’ rejected by Jews was the promised Redeemer, ‘Messiah’(Christ) who was the fulfillment of covenant in the redemptive history. In doing so, through his arguments, we clearly acknowledged that the true foundation of Christian Christology as well as our whole faith is not any metaphysical ideas, principles, or theological speculations, but the historical reality of ‘Jesus of Nazareth.’
(2) In the arguments on ‘the mystery of Incarnation,’ Turretin essentially related it with the understanding of the Trinity. By such an argument, he actually made clear many difficult doctrinal problems in Christology. In that respect, we can recognize very well that the doctrine of Christology is essentially inseparable relation with the doctrine of the Trinity.
(3) Turretin proved that, after the Incarnation, the two natures (the divine nature and the human nature) of the Christ, who is the eternal Logos, are in the ‘Hypostatical Union.’ In that union, he is ‘the Son of God’ and at the same time ‘the Son of man,’ and therefore he is our unique ‘Mediator’ as the ‘God-man’(theanthropos). Moreover, Turretin reaccepted the following statement of ‘the Creed of Chalcedon’( 451) as the standard of Christian Faith: “One and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfuse, immutabiliter, indivise, inseperabiliter; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature be preserved.”
(4) Finally, concerning the controversies on the Lord’s Supper and communicatio idiomatum with the Lutherans, Turretin well suggested an essential understanding in the Reformed perspective as follows: ‘the attributes and properties of each nature can be communicated into the person of Christ, and therefore the attributes and properties which belong to one nature could be communicated only indirectly to the other, not directly, through the person. Thus, communicatio idiomatum is none other than the effect of the Hypostatical Union of the two natures in one person of Christ.’
프란시스 튜레틴, 기독론, 예수 그리스도, 위격적 연합, 속성의 교류, 개혁파 정통주의 신학, 개신교 스콜라신학, Francis Turretin, Christology, Jesus Christ, Hypostatical Union, Communicatio Idiomatum, Reformed Orthodox Theology, Protestant Scholasticism
Integrated Research on Depression and Dark Night of the Soul 우울증과 영혼의 어두운 밤에 관한 통합적 연구
Nowadays people are suffering from depression. The reason why depression is serious issue is that it causes suicide. The symptoms of both Depression and Dark night of the soul are very similar to each other. Depression and Dark night of the soul are derived from the same roots and different expression. At one end, there is Depression and Dark night of the soul which occurs in the procession of spiritual maturation at the other end. Not only do these two things take place in people individually, but sometimes those appear simultaneously on the same person. Those who have Depressed Tendency are more sensitive on religion. So they tend to be immersed deeply in religion. People who have depressed disposition more easily experienced Dark night of the soul. Further the state of depression means one type of Dark night of the soul itself. Therefore, Depression could be a gate which opens to spiritual awakening and it means the process of spiritual journey at the same time. A seeker of Dark night of the soul faces with Solitary always. But depressed patients can not feel Solitary but Loneliness. Solitary refers to the physical state of being alone but the object of love is internalized inside. Thus, being in the firm Solitary can help the person to unveil his or her creativity. But Loneliness is not contained on inner side of the object. It causes psychopathological symptoms as defense mechanism.
This paper will give an alternative for depression treatment by researching integrated Psychoanalysis and Dark night of the soul. The author tries to understand it by examining “View of Psychoanalysis, Existentialism, and Dark night of the soul on Depression.” And it will introduce some cases Overcoming Depression through the process of “Dark night of the soul” without drug treatment and psychotherapy. From these, the author attempts to prove the possibility of Spiritual Psychotherapy on Depression.
우울증, 영혼의 어두운 밤, 영혼, 고독과 외로움, 영성심리치료, Depression, Dark Night of the Soul, Soul, Solitary and Loneliness, Spiritual Psychotherapy
Theological Understanding of the Bible as Meta Story and the Dramatic Approaches 메타이야기로서의 성경과 연극적 접근의 신학적 이해
As meta story, the Bible is a transcendental and authoritative revelation consisting of various narratives according to the intentions of the author, who is God. The various narratives, which contain various circumstances of life, are closely connected within the history of God and reflect his unified and consistent message flowing in them. The dramatic analysis method is effective in understanding the plot and narratives of the Bible containing God’s consistent objective and message.
This paper provides a theological direction in the attitude of dramatic approach to the Bible as meta story. The Trinitarian communication behavior of Vanhoozer and the central concepts of Stanislavski’s acting method are combined for this. Through the principle of the Trinitarian communication we could find the author, God’s intention and purpose of the Bible and the super-objective of the main action in the Son of God’s ministry. We also rely on the guidance of the Holy Spirit, God to find God’s will and accept the meaning of the text.
Through this dramatic reading we could understand the plot of the Bible and analyze the desire of the characters in the text and experience accidents through the embodiment of action. A drama is an effective tool for interpreting the Bible that requires rational understanding and practice.
연극, 내러티브, 메타이야기, 성경, 삼위일체, 스타니슬랍스키, 밴후저, Drama, Narratives, the Meta Story, the Bible, the Trinity, Stanislavski, Vanhoozer
A Study on the Christian Spiritual Education for the Spirituality of Young People in Modern Korean Churches 현대 한국교회 청년영성을 위한 기독교 영성교육에 대한 고찰
Young people including teenagers are the future of the country in any country. Especially, young people are important talents who should support various social organizations including churches and play a role of taking responsibility for the future in terms of Christianity. Many Korean churches have recognized such importance of young people and the churches are seeking various measures for educating young people for religious faith. Although those churches may think that they make every effort for young people through keen attention and various education systems, the number of young people in Korean churches is still decreasing and the degree of their reliability on the protestant churches is very low in comparison to other religions. Such circumstances show the uncertainty of Korean churches in future as it is.
It is considered that fundamental measures for various prominent issues in modern Korean protestant churches including young people’s distrust against Korean churches and Christianity that has accumulated since they left the churches are necessary.
Among such measures, the key measure which Korean churches should implement with great interest is the spirituality education for the spirituality of young people.
Christian spirituality is not simply the experience of something spiritual or secular, personal asceticism mentioned in other religions or something mysterious. In the protestant churches, the spirituality is the reception of God’s salvation including the life ordered by Jesus Christ through the Spirit of God presented in the Bible.
In Christianity, spirituality is the life of Jesus Christ displayed in the life of Christians as the example, and it indicates the life of disciple as well as the correct belief as a Christian. Many young Christian people in modern Korean churches display the dualistic Christian faith to separate human body from spirit and isolate God from human being. The Christian spirituality education aims at spirituality that God and human being meet and communicate with each other personally. Eventually, spirituality can be considered as the process of growth and maturation with faith.
The purpose of this study is to consider the Christian spiritual education to allow young people in modern Korean churches, who experience confusions and conflicts with Christian faith and leave the church, to reach spiritual maturity, think based on the religious belief, and reflect such acts in their lives.
청년, 영성, 기독교 영성교육, 한국교회, 기독교 영성, Young People, Spirituality, Christian Spiritual Education, Korean Church, Christian Spirituality
The Practice of Dancing in the Church: Biblical and Historical Foundations 교회의 무용 실천: 성서적·역사적 바탕
In view of the occurrence period, the dance is ahead of the arts. And it is an act belonging to human nature. The church for salvation of soul should have concerned such a dance. Dancing in the church is rare to observe. Of course, church also have kept dances as rhythm in church school, worship dance in adolescent or youth group, praise meeting in adult, and movement in worship. By the way, is there any secular factor in the dance? The Problem is the basis for dances in the church. What are the principles for such dance movements? Furthermore, where are the principles of such dance movements from? Now the church needs a perspective on dance.
The essay takes biblical and church historical foundations for the dances in the church. First, it refers dances in the Bible and church history. Secondly, it handles the possibilities of the dances for the growth of the faith. Thirdly, it applies the contents from dances in the Bible and through the historical church to the church fields of nowadays. Through the work, the rigidity of the church on the dance will be eased, and the faith of believers will grow to a certain extent through dance.
신앙의 차원, 무용의 요소, 성서의 무용, 교회사의 무용, 교회의 무용, Dimensions of Faith, Elements of Dance, Dances in the Bible, Dances through the Church History, Dances in the Church
A Conception of Socioecological Creation Justice for Christian Ethics in the 21st Century 21세기 기독교윤리를 위한 사회생태적 창조정의 구상
The crisis of humanity drifting without proper consciousness due to the abundance of material civilization is heading toward a global collapse of the ecosystem. Faced with the recent crisis of climate instability that stems from rapid global warming, humankind has been at the center of it. Humans have been expressing serious concern about pollution and resource depletion of human environment, and are placing emphasis on building ecological justice on the level of social justice. This was an attempt to see human as a member of the ecosystem and feel a sense of crisis due to the fact that ecological destruction lies in the pursuit of civilization and convenience that followed the continued development of science and technology. However, in terms of Creation Theology, ecological justice did not properly emphasize God’s providence of history for the whole creation. In response to this, this paper puts forward socioecological creation justice which treats everything with God’s creation-centered consciousness as an alternative Christian ethics in the 21st century. This is also a sound direction for the 21st century Christian ethics toward a sustainable future that many scholars, including Larry L. Rasmussen and Alister E. McGrath, continue to assert.
사회정의, 생태정의, 창조정의, 창조 중심적 의식, 지속가능한 미래, 통합적 생태학, 사회 생태 실천윤리, Social Justice, Ecological Justice, Creation Justice, Creation-Centered Consciousness, Sustainable Future, Integral Ecology, Socioecological Praxis Ethics
Rev. Cheon-seok Lee’s Inclusive Holy Spirit Movement: Calvinism, Wesleyan Holiness Movement and Pentecostalism 이천석 목사의 포용적 성령운동: 칼빈주의, 웨슬리안 성결운동, 오순절운동
The purpose of this thesis is to look at the Holy Spirit Movement of Reverend Cheon-seok Lee in the 1970s and 1980s in terms of interdenominational experience, understanding and ministry. Cheonseok Lee was an Presbyterian pastor. However, the Holy Spirit, which he experienced, went beyond the Presbyterian Church to include the elements of Pentecostalism and Wesleyan Holiness Movement. His experience was equally visible in his understanding and ministry. To him, expressions of speaking in tongues, and expressions similar to eradicating sinful nature, Power, etc. were found in connection with the Holy Spirit. And in his ministry, this expression became a reality. So the researcher described his Holy Spirit Movement as inclusive.
The methodology of this study is literature research. Cheon-seok Lee’s sermon book, biography and his wife’s biography are the most basic and important materials to study him. Based on the works of Cheon-seok Lee, we look at The Christian Times, Christian newspaper and others’ autobiographies. Through this, this study will present Cheon-seok Lee’s inclusive Holy Spirit Movement.
The growth of the non-religious and the growth of Christianity is the most critical point in the 2015 Census compared to the 2005 Census which indicates the decrease of Christianity. The increase of the Canaan Christian, considered as one of the reasons for Christianity’s growth, is closely related to the increase of the non-religious. The growth of Christianity is due to the increase of the Canaan Christians because the Canaan Christians are often classified as non-religious as they have no affiliation with the church despite their Christian identity. Therefore, they are the people on the border between the Christians and the non-religious.
From the perspective of the missiology, the Canaan Christians are very important targets of evangelism. Because the Canaan Christians are at the border between Christians and non-religious, they can bring a new group of non-religious people back to the church. Therefore, the study of Canaan Christian seems to be a very important mediator to activate evangelism in the postmodern era.