This paper builds on previous studies to consider a specific aspect of the contextual theology and practice in the ministry of Yonggi Cho: the role of the Holy Spirit in his teaching. This pneumatology cannot be isolated from his context and practical concern for Korean society. The paper begins by discussing how Pentecostalism throughout the world through its emphasis on the Holy Spirit fills an emptiness found in the experiences of people who feel spiritually insecure. Then it outlines how Youngsan’s theology of the Spirit can be considered contextual and how it relates to his social and cultural situation. Finally the paper discusses how Youngsan’s theology of the Spirit relates to his ministry as pastor of the world’s largest church.
This paper has centered on the question “how” a “good” girl has become an internationally “renowned leader” by investigating it from the perspective of a psychiatrist M. Scott Peck, M.D., whereas the previous study of Jashil Choi was primarily focused on “what is it.” From this research, I have observed that the accomplishment of Rev. Choi’s greatness is resulted from the four types of discipline with which she had to go through in her lifetime, enduring the pains induced by many occasions of renunciation and choice, and of freedom and responsibility.
As the Korean church has an inclination to regard a person as a dichotomy of spirit and body, so it has been dealing with the area of mind from a very ambiguous point of view. Assuming that the mental area is either sepa- rated from or inseparably related to the realm of spirituality, it has not been research culture in which this area of “mind” is investigated at an independent level.
Although the spirituality of the Korean church is excellent, the cause of the problems is not irrelevant to such a theological view on humans, which have continuously arisen in the character, personality, or sociality of pastors as well as of church members. Therefore, when both the research about Jashil Choi in the mental realm and the research of theological study of Korean churches in conjunction with this area of “mind” are actively executed, it is highly likely that they would contribute a great influence on church members in their personal and social effects.
Jashil Choi, M. Scott Peck, Spirituality, Discipline, Character, 최자실, M. 스캇 펙, 영성, 훈련, 인성
The Liminal Spirit: Ritual Experience, Ritual Initiation in Luke and Paul 간극의 성령: 누가와 바울에 있어서의 의식 경험, 의식 입문
This article is divided into two sections. The first employs literary, discourse analysis and narratological approaches to demonstrate that, contrary to widely received thought, Luke prescribes a coherent and internally consistent model of Christian initiation. The distinctive methodological combination addresses a problem long plaguing Lukan studies, namely, how to disambiguate between what is merely incidental to the story and what represents the implied author’s ideology. The resultant data is discussed in terms of anthropological categories.
The second section addresses the problem of reconciling the two apparently conflicting data sets of Luke (who seems to show ‘Christians’ without the Spirit) and Paul (who claimed that there were no Christians without the Spirit). Paul predicated his statements that possession of the Spirit was the universal marker of Christian identity upon the liminal ritual process that Luke both describes and prescribes.1) The individuals that Luke genuinely shows without the Spirit are in a liminal state, they are initiates in the process of becoming part of the people of God, a process that involves both water baptism and Spirit reception (a.k.a., Spirit baptism), and a process that entails both a horizontal dimension (the initiate relative to the group) and a vertical dimension (the initiate relative to God).
The closing section of Pauline letters consists of several epistolary elements: ‘the grace benediction,’ ‘the peace benediction,’ ‘the closing greeting,’ ‘the autograph,’ ‘the concluding exhortation,’ ‘the doxology,’ to name but a few. The closing sections of Pauline letters are not simply drawn from a stock of conventional sentiments, they are rather carefully composed. So the addition or omission of certain elements and contents is likely purposely done. On the basis of this, it seems certain that Paul carefully composed the closing section of Galatians, omitting certain epistolary conventions like closing greetings and adding particular elements such as a summary section (6:12-15). Paul also structures the order of the epistolary conventions a bit differently from those in other letters. This means that although the elements of 6:11-18 are generally similar to those of other closing sections, they also can include dissimilar elements that form special or unique features. This particularity that reflects the distinct epistolary context is significant in understanding the major purpose of the closing section since the author’s response to this specific context and his intention are revealed in the distinctiveness.
Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine Galatians 6:11-18 on the basis of an epistolary and structural analysis in order to understand Paul’s intention behind the particular features of the closing section of Galatians. This study will show that Galatians 6:17 is used as a concluding exhortation from the epistolary form perspective and the conclusion of the letter from the structural analysis viewpoint. As 6:12-15 summarizes the main issues addressed in the body of the letter and 6:16 is written in relation to 6:12-15, it is probable that 6:17 serves to conclude 6:12-16 and the whole letter.
The Closing Section of Galatians, Galatians 6:11-18, Epistolary and Structural Analysis, Epistolary Elements, Galatians 6:17, 갈라디아서의 맺음말, 갈라디아서 6:11-18, 서간학적 구조적 분석, 서간학적 요소, 갈라디아서 6:17
The Homiletical Implications of Rev. Youngsan Yonggi Cho’s Fivefold Gospel 영산 조용기 목사의 오중복음이 가진 설교학적 함의(含意)
Along with the threefold blessings, the fivefold gospel represents Youngsan Yonggi Cho’s unique understanding of the gospel, and has been his ministerial tool for acknowledging the Bible and the congregation. The contents of the fivefold gospel are the gospel of regeneration, the gospel of fullness of the Holy Spirit, the gospel of divine healing, the gospel of blessings, and the gospel of the second coming of Jesus Christ. The main purpose of this article is to explore the homiletical implications of Youngsan’s gospel, arguing that (1) it demonstrates many dimensions of the gospel; (2) it shows us the gospel of hope; (3) it can be an interpretative tool for preachers; (4) it displays key doctrines of Christianity; and (5) it underlines the importance of the work of the Holy Spirit in preaching. Although formulated more than fifty years ago, the fivefold gospel is still an effective tool for preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ in the contemporary world.
The Fivefold Gospel, Rev. Youngsan Yonggi Cho, Homiletical Implications of the Fivefold Gospel, Many Dimensions of the Gospel, The Fivefold Gospel as Interpretative Tool, The Fivefold Gospel and Doctrines, The Fivefold Gospel and the Holy Spirit, 오중복음, 조용기 목사, 오중복음의 설교학적 함의, 복음의 다양성, 해석학적 도구로서의 오중복음, 오중복음과 교리, 오중복음과 성령
‘Manifest Destiny’and Its Implications for Foreign Mission ‘명백한 사명’과 해외선교에 대한 함의
This paper aims to give a historical overview of the ‘manifest destiny’ and its influence on the missionary movement of the American church. Coined by O’Sullivan, manifest destiny was a contested concept but widely held belief during the nineteenth century. This notion presupposed the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race and the English-speaking American breed. Josiah Strong, a minister of the Congregational church and a staunch advocate of Social Darwinism, argued that the Almighty God bestowed the Anglo-Saxons special position to carry out God’s task. He held that Anglo- Americans had a providential role to play in preparing the kingdom of God. Strong firmly believed that Americans had a divinely appointed command to Christianize and to civilize the people of all nations. The phrase manifest destiny has often been associated with the territorial expansion of the United States and widespread missionary movement of the American church. The inherent problem of manifest destiny is that its main tenets had the dangers of disseminating an ethnocentric or chauvinistic mentality. The patronizing and derogatory attitude of western missionaries rendered it difficult for them to have a cooperative attitude as mission partners. The racial superiority of Anglo-Americans can easily lead to discrimination and exploitation of non-white locals in the field. The household of God, however, must embrace all regardless his or her nationalities and race. God’s kingdom should transcend all human barriers and man-made boundaries in this world.
Manifest Destiny, Anglo-Saxon, John O`Sullivan, Josiah Strong, John Winthrop, Racial Superiority, Social Darwinism, 명백한 사명, 앵글로 색슨, 존 오설리반, 조시아 스트롱, 존 윈스로프, 인종적 우월감, 사회적 다윈주의, 진화론
An Understanding of “Universality”in Pauline Theology and Its Missiological Application 바울신학에서의 “보편성”이해와 선교학적 적용
This study is about aspects of universality in Paul, who accurately reflected the universal thought of the Trinity in his theology and ministry. Paul was originally a Pharisee who believed that non-descendants of Abraham were excluded from God’s redemptive plan. However, after meeting Jesus Christ on the road to Damascus, he became an apostle to the Gentiles and the theme of universality appeared in his theology.
There are four major aspects of universality represented in Pauline theology: the universality of the gospel, sin, the atonement, and the church. Paul’s thought regarding universality is strictly structured in Jesus Christ. “The Gospel” is the good news of Jesus Christ which is truly the joyful message of hope to all peoples. “Sin” had entered into the world and had enslaved all peoples to death. But “the Atonement” of Jesus Christ and His blood has redeemed the sins of all peoples and “the Church” unites all the believers into the family of God without any distinction.
Jesus Christ appointed the church as an instrument to spread the gospel of the kingdom of God, which contained this universal thought, and gave them the Great Command to preach it to “all peoples.” In this sense, Paul was the one who perfectly understood the Great Command and was faithfully obedient to such universal ministry.
Universality, The Kingdom of God, The Gospel of the Kingdom, Pauline Theology, The Great Command, 보편성, 하나님의 나라, 하나님 나라의 복음, 바울신학, 지상명령
John Calvin’s Understanding of Faith Based on the Doctrine of Justification and Sanctification 칭의론과 성화론을 통해 조명한 칼빈의 신앙 이해
This study examines John Calvin’s understanding of faith and the doctrine of justification and sanctification. In his book, the Institutes of Christian Religion, John Calvin argued that God has provided us with His Word to restore the relationship between God and us. For Calvin, faith is the principal work of the Holy Spirit because He makes us recognize Scripture by illumination. Calvin claimed that the knowledge of faith consists in assurance and we receive a double grace: being reconciled to God through forgiveness of Christ and sanctified by the Spirit of Christ. There is no essential difference between the Reformed theology and the Pentecostal theology in that both equally believe that we are saved by faith alone. Both argue that justification can only be obtained by faith in Jesus Christ, and the holy life that begins in justification is the sovereign ministry of the Holy Spirit. Calvin, who is one of the most influential figures in the Reformed theology, argued that we cannot come to Christ unless we are drawn by the Spirit of God as the Pentecostal theology states. The Reformed theology and the Pentecostal theology equally claim that repentance and forgiveness of sins are core aspects of the gospel and both are conferred on us by Christ through faith. The two theology also differentiates the law and the gospel in a same way. Although law contains a promise of life, if we look upon the law, we can only be despondent, confused, and despairing because the fulfillment of the promise of the law is not possible for us without Christ. In the midst of the debate with Andreas Osiander, who was a German Lutheran theologian and Protestant reformer, Calvin argued that we are justified before God solely by the intercession of Christ’s righteousness and thus our righteousness is not in our merit of works but in Christ.
John Calvin, the Institutes of the Christian Religion, Faith, Justification, Sanctification, the Reformed Theology, the Pentecostal Theology, 존 칼빈, 기독교강요, 신앙, 칭의, 성화, 개혁주의 신학, 오순절 신학
Modern Theologian’s Perspective on Sin in the Context of Secularization 세속화 상황 속에서의 현대 신학자들의 죄에 대한 견해
Niebuhr, Bonhoeffer, Pannenberg, and Yonggi Cho highlight the cruel reality of sin. They assume that the empirical evidence of human sinfulness is so irrefutable that any Christian anthropology should deal with it. They do not attempt to minimize sin as minor errors of morality which can be eradicated through education. Their views do not fully support the modern psychological understanding of it, though it inevitably involves mental aspects. They are successful in proposing solid rationales for the reality and the universality of sin.
Their views of sin are the determinative element in their anthropologies. They all eye-witnessed the radical manifestations of moral evil in their days. Given the relevance of their views of sin to reality, there is no significant difference in the four theologian’s perspectives on sin besides their starting- point and methodology. They discuss the issue in close connection to human destiny as related to God and neighbor. Yet Bonhoeffer and Yonggi move from revelation to the verification by experience, while Niebuhr and Pannenberg moves from empirical evidence to biblical conclusion.
Their emphasis on human free-will as the major agent in life points out a continuity of their views with the traditional thought. It is also solidly based on their exposition of the related biblical texts. On the whole, their empirical orientation in interpreting the reality of sin is coherent, effectively refuting reductionistic understandings of sin merely as mental ill. In doing this, they are outspoken in their criticism of those who confuse modern people by their biased views of sin, and who are complacent about human nature.
Secularization of the Concept of Sin, Psychologization of Sin, Essence of Sin, Empirical Evidence of Sin, Human Destiny and Sin, Universality of Sin, 죄의 개념의 세속화, 죄의 심리화, 죄의 본질, 죄에 대한 경험적 증거, 인간의 운명과 죄, 죄의 보편성
영산신학저널 제38호 Contributors (printed in order)
45(0) 351-357, 2018
영산신학저널 제38호 Contributors (printed in order)
DOI: Vol.45(No.0) 351-357, 2018
영산신학저널 제45호 Published English Contents
45(0) 359-364, 2018
영산신학저널 제45호 Published English Contents
DOI: Vol.45(No.0) 359-364, 2018
Rm # 101, Theology Building, 30 Hanse-ro, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do, 15852, Republic of Korea
Copyright Youngsan Theological Institute of Hansei University