YoungSan Theological Institute of Hansei University

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Journal of Youngsan Theology - Vol. 50

[ Article ]
Journal of Youngsan Theology - Vol. 49, No. 0, pp.157-184
ISSN: 1738-1509 (Print)
Print publication date 30 Sep 2019
Received 28 Jun 2019 Revised 04 Aug 2019 Accepted 14 Aug 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.18804/jyt.2019.09.49.157

Youngsan Yonggi Cho’s Old Testament Narrative Preaching Methodology
Gu Kwon
Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Preaching (kwonkuz9@gmail.com)

영산의 구약 내러티브 설교 방법론
권구

Abstract

Yonggi Cho (Youngsan) is a leading Korean preacher. As the senior pastor of the largest church in the world, preaching was always at the center of his ministry. For this reason, much research has been done on his sermons, especially regarding their contents. Surprisingly, however, Youngsan’s actual preaching methodology has been rarely studied. Therefore, this study aims to examine Youngsan’s preaching methodology in the scope of the Old Testament narrative. This investigation will demonstrate six major features of Youngsan’s narrative preaching (Re-presenting plot, Holistic approach, Central idea, Imagination, Sense appeal, Timeless truth). Further, this writer will propose a “CHRIST” model as Youngsan’s summarized preaching methodology in the Old Testament narrative.

초록

영산 설교에 대한 많은 연구들은 주로 영산 설교의 내용에 집중하는 경향이 있다. 그러다보니 영산의 설교 내용을 담아내는 실제적인 설교 방법론에 관한 연구는 아직까지 많이 이루어지지 않고 있다. 영산은 그의 설교들을 어떻게 효과적으로 전달하는가? 이 질문에 대한 답을 하기 위해서 본 논문은 우선적으로 영산의 구약 내러티브 설교에 나타난 설교학적 특징들을 살펴볼 것이다. 그 특징들은 플롯 재현(re-presenting plot), 통전적 접근(holistic approach), 중심 메시지(central idea), 상상력(imagination), 감각 언어(sense appeal), 영적 원리 (timeless truth)가 있다. 이러한 특징들을 바탕으로 본 논문은 영산의 구약 내러티브 설교 모델로서“CHRIST”모델을 새롭게 소개할 것이다.


Keywords: Youngsan’s Preaching, Youngsan’s Old Testament Narrative Preaching Methodology, Theology of Preaching, Old Testament Narrative, Text-Driven Preaching
키워드: 영산 설교, 영산의 구약 내러티브 설교 방법론, 설교 신학, 구약 내러티브, 본문이 이끄는 설교

Ⅰ. Introduction

David Yonggi Cho (Youngsan) is a leading Korean preacher. As the senior pastor of the largest church in the world, preaching was always at the center of his ministry.1) For this reason, much research has been done on his sermons, especially regarding their contents.2) Surprisingly, however, Youngsan’s actual preaching methodology has been rarely studied.3) Therefore, this study aims to examine Youngsan’s preaching methodology in the scope of the Old Testament narrative.4) For this study, this writer will examine five selected Old Testament narrative sermons that are appropriate for this study, and they will be analyzed from the lens of structure, exposition, application, and communication. This investigation will demonstrate six major features of Youngsan’s preaching in the narrative (Re-presenting plot, Holistic approach, Central idea, Imagination, Sense appeal, Timeless truth). This study will also exhibit examples of selected sermons that reflect the structure of the text. Although Youngsan is usually known as a three-point preacher, this paper demonstrates his text-driven preaching of the Old Testament narrative. Further, this writer will propose a “CHRIST” model as Youngsan’s summarized preaching methodology in the Old Testament narrative.


Ⅱ. Structural Features
1. Re-Presenting Plot

Matthewson said that the plot consists of four main stages or elements of the flow of action: exposition, crisis, resolution, and conclusion or denouement.5) Even though exact plot shapes are probably different according to the readers, they will agree that the story flows through the exposition, crisis or climax, resolution, and conclusion. With this regard, in the sermon titled “From Jacob to Israel” (Gn 32:24-32), Youngsan attempts to re-present this plot structure.6)

Youngsan first explains the background and setting of Genesis 32:24-32 chronologically and then naturally joins the contents of the text. Although he does not explicitly tell the division of each stage, he can narrate the story in the narrative flow. People can see that Youngsan narrates Genesis 32:24 as the conflict stage, and the climax of conflict begins in Genesis 32:25.7) With the main idea in the climax section, he applies the main idea to the congregation. He then narrates Genesis 32: 25-28 to show the resolution of the narrative while restating the main ideas, illustrations, and applications. Finally, he uses Genesis 32:30-32 as the conclusion.

The sermon titled “Look at Your God” is based on 1 Samuel 17:32-51.8) This text describes the story of David before and after fighting Goliath. In this story, David said to Saul that he wants to fight the Philistine, Goliath. Then, Saul said to David that you are not able to go out against this Philistine and fight him. But David explains how he kept his father’s sheep from the lions, the bears. Furthermore, David declares that the Lord who delivered him from the paw of the lion and the paw of the bear will deliver him from the hand of this Philistine. Later, David took his staff in his hand, Chose five smooth stones, and approached Goliath. Then in the climax of this story, there is a scene in which David defeats Goliath (1 Sm 17:32-49). In this way, it is not puzzling to see the plot in this story. Likewise, Youngsan develops the story according to the scene of the story. After describing the conversation between David and Saul, Youngsan especially concentrates on the story of David and Goliath, the highlights of this story. This is because this fight between David and Goliath is at the heart of this story, and the central idea comes from this scene. Youngsan then describes the ending scene of the text that David triumphed over the Philistine with a sling and a stone (1 Sm 17:50). In this sermon, Youngsan does not simply preach in a topical or deductive way. Rather, he first tells each scene of the story and then provides a point to the audience, which is an inductive approach. Smith writes, “You do not know the point of a story until the story is over.”9) Smith also writes that narratives are inductive because they can tell the story’s point after each story is described in this way.10) In this sense, Youngsan reflects the structure of the story in his sermon structure. Below are two outlines of how Youngsan structurally develops the previous two sermons:

“From Jacob to Israel” (Gn 32:24-32)

Introduction: Change through hardship

Illustration: a metaphor of the relationship between a man and a woman at the beginning of their marriage

Zoom out

The background of the story: The culmination of the Jacob-Esau cycle (Gn 25:1-32:23)

Zoom in

Scene 1: Genesis 32:24
Explanation: The angel of God wrestled with Jacob.
Illustration: Description of Japanese wrestling
Scene 2: Genesis 32:25-28 (Central idea)
Explanation: From Jacob to Israel
Illustration: Park Jong-sun’s testimony
Application: Change only by the Grace
Scene 3: Genesis 32:30-32
Explanation: The sun rose upon Jacob
Illustration: The light in the Darkness

Zoom out: Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau in Genesis 33

Conclusion: The importance of our change in our Jabbok River

“Look at Your God” (1 Sm 17:32-51)

Introduction: The difference between a person who lives by looking at the world and a person who lives by looking at God

Illustration: Peter walking on the water

Zoom out

Explanation: 1 Samuel 16:6-23 (Setting)
Illustration: David who walked with God
Application: People of God who has God’s perspective in the world
Scene 1
Explanation: 1 Samuel 17:1-37
Illustration: The Holy Spirit dwelling in us
Application: We have to look at our life with God’s eyes

Zoom in

Scene 2
Explanation: 1 Samuel 17:38-51 (Central idea)
Illustration: Spiritual height
Application: Looking at the world with God’s standard

Conclusion: Resting the central idea and Application through prayer Additionally, the outline of the sermon, “Build the Collapsed Altar” (1 Kgs 18:30-46), is like below:11)

Zoom out as Introduction: Introducing Elijah and Israel’s situation in 9 B.C.

Zoom in

Scene 1
Explanation: 1 Kings 18:30-46
Central idea: Restoring the collapsed worship of life
Illustration: Great Victory
Application:
1) Let’s build the altar of faith
2) Let’s build the altar of Sunday service
3) Let us build the altar of tithes and offerings
4) Let’s build the altar of the Bible study
5) Let’s build the altar of prayer
6) Let’s build the altar of evangelism
Scene 2
Explanation: 1 Kings 18:40
Illustration: Baal in our lives
Application: You must remove the Baal by recovering your collapsed altar.
Scene 3
Explanation: 1 Kings 18:41-46
Illustration: Rain as a blessing
Application: The importance of prayer

Conclusion: The importance of re-building the collapsed altar

The above outlines can be simplified as follows:

Introduction

Illustration

Zoom out

Zoom in

Scene 1
Explanation
Illustration
Scene 2 (Central idea)
Explanation
Illustration
Application
Scene 3
Explanation
Illustration

Zoom out

Conclusion: Restating the central idea and Application: However, in a slightly different way from the examples above, there are examples of hybrid preaching.12) The hybrid preaching develops the main idea deductively after all the stories were first presented according to the structure of the narrative. The sermon outline titled “They Are Our Prey”13) is as follows:

Zoom out as Introduction

Explanation: Numbers 14:1-10

Zoom in

Scene 1
Explanation: Numbers 14:6-10
Central idea: Trouble is our prey
Transition: How could we say, like Joshua and Caleb, that the people of Canaan are our prey?
Point 1. For believers, trouble will be their prey (God greater thantribulation)
Point 2. For those who have divine dreams, trouble will be their food (Rom 8:31-39)
Point 3. For those who pray, tribulation will be their prey (2 Sm 22:7)
Point 4. For those who thank God, hardship will be their prey (Ps 50:23)

Conclusion: For those who fix their eyes on God and trust in His promise, the tribulation becomes their prey.

Application: Let us give thanks and praise to God more in the midst of trouble and affliction
This outline also can be simply illustrated as follows:

Introduction

Zoom out

Zoom in

Scene 1
Explanation
Central idea
Transition
Point 1, Point 2, Point 3, … Point N

Conclusion: Restating the central idea and Application

As described above, Youngsan’s sermons reflect the structure of the narrative text. Youngsan advances the narrative in two ways. First, Youngsan develops the sermon by describing scenes of the story deductively while focusing on the central idea with illustrations and applications. Second, Youngsan moves the text inductively toward a certain central idea and then expounds upon it with points, observations, applications, or principles that flow deductively from the idea. This investigation portrays that Youngsan is not restricted to three-point preaching.14)

2. Holistic Approach15)

Smith says that both “zooming in” to the micro level of the text and “panning out” to the surrounding context are essential to determining meaning.16) The reason for this is that sometimes the meaning of the text is not in the text, but around the text.17) Kaiser also says, “It is important to notice how each individual periscope within the larger structure contributes and expands the theme of the whole structure as well as the individual structure.”18) In this aspect, Youngsan tells what happened to Jacob before beginning the story from Genesis 32:24 in the sermon titled “From Jacob to Israel.” At first, Youngsan explains the background of the story on a macro level. He says that God blessed Jacob financially after he served Laban’s house for twenty years. When he went back to his hometown, he was distressed over his relationship with his brother, Esau. Jacob had traded a bowl of lentil stew for Esau’s birthright, and he later applied fleece on his hand and neck to deceive his father Isaac, who had poor eye sight, into giving him Esau’s blessing. When Esau got angry and tried to kill Jacob, their mother advised Jacob to go to her brother, Laban. Twenty years later, Jacob still thought that there was a grudge in Esau’s heart. Moreover, Jacob was afraid of the 400 men accompanying Esau to meet him. So, Jacob sent several gifts to Esau and tried to dissolve Esau’s heart full of resentment. Jacob divided his possessions and livestock into two groups, and even let his wives and children go across the Jabbok River ahead of him to keep them safe. Likewise, Youngsan pans out the story by telling the background of the story that begins in Genesis 32:24, which helps the audience grasp the meaning of the event in which Jacob’s name was changed to Israel at the Jabbok River. Furthermore, Youngsan does not stop the story at the conclusion of the sermon. Although it is not in this particular text, he briefly mentions the reconciliation of Jacob and Esau in Genesis 33 and speaks of the beautiful fruits that resulted from Jacob’s change. This also enables the audience to understand the meaning in a wider structure.

In the sermon titled “Build the Collapsed Altar,” Youngsan also deals with the text holistically. In the beginning, Youngsan tells about the situation in northern Israel around the ninth century B.C., when the 450 prophets of Baal and 400 prophets of Asherah were gathered at Mount Carmel (1 Kgs 18:19). Then he helps the audience see the previous story, that although the prophets of Baal and Asherah asked for the sign, there was no response. No one answered; no one paid attention. He then starts to explain 1 Kings 18:30. By doing so, Youngsan helps audience to figure out how 1 Kings 18:30-46 fits in the wider context of 1 Kings 18.

In the sermon titled “Look at Your God,” Youngsan assists the audience in seeing 1 Samel 17:32-51 on a macro level by briefly explaining the story of 1 Samuel 17:24 that when all the men of Israel saw the man, they fled from him and were greatly afraid. This explanation makes David’s courage and faith more prominent in 1 Samuel 17:32-51.

As seen above, Youngsan combines the micro exposition and the macro exposition in the Old Testament narrative. This method is helpful for interpreting the narratives of the Old Testament contextually, holistically, and literarily.19)


Ⅲ. Expositional Features
1. Central Idea

In “Biblical Preaching,” Haddon Robinson emphasizes the importance of an idea.20) He then goes on to say that ideally every sermon is a description, interpretation, or application of a single dominant idea, which can be said to take the base on many other ideas from one text or several texts of the Bible.21) Likewise, Youngsan also talks about the importance of a single idea. He emphasizes the necessity of unity in the composition of the sermon. He says:

When you preach, you usually talk about three or four points, but it must eventually be focused on one idea so that the audience can grasp a central idea, even from several points in the sermon. Some preachers who are unfamiliar with preaching used to be tempted to give too many ideas in thirty minutes preaching.22)

For example, in “Look at Your God,” Youngsan presents a central idea, which is, “Look at your God in any circumstances.” In text-driven preaching, the central idea must be derived from the exegetical main idea of the text.23) Youngsan identifies the central idea from 1 Samuel 17:45 as one should only look at God, rely on God, not on people. This central idea is illuminated not only by the illustration of the introduction but also by the sub-points and conclusion. This shows that the whole flow of the sermon is moving to the central idea.

In “From Jacob to Israel,” the central idea is that disobedient Jacob was transformed into a man of obedience by the grace of God. For example, in the introduction, Youngsan uses the illustration that in order to recover the relationship between a husband and a wife, one must first be changed into a better person. In the body, Youngsan uses the illustration that a disobedient man and a persecutor, Park Jong-sun, by the grace of God, was changed into a servant of God. Youngsan also emphasizes that, like when God wrenched Jacob’s hip, when a Christian disobeys God, He will strike the hips of our business, health and relationships. Therefore, being changed by the grace of God is crucially important. In this way, Youngsan advances his sermon to speak the central idea of the text from the beginning to the end of the sermon.

2. Imagination

Matthewson emphasizes the use of image to convey the information in a more interesting way.24) Youngsan also uses imagination to read the text more abundantly.25) The text-based imagination often appears in his sermons.

For example, in Genesis 32:23, he describes Jacob’s inner mind as his caddish character, although it is not mentioned in the text. Youngsan notes how Jacob sent not only all his possessions but also his wife and children, but he did not cross the Jabbok River. Jacob was trying to run away alone in the worst case. Youngsan interprets this to mean that Jacob thought of his own life first, even before the life of his own wife. How ridiculous is Jacob? Youngsan continues to describe the story in a first-person perspective as follows. “Jacob, do you not cross? I have something to do here. You guys go first. Dad, do you not cross the Jabbok River? No, I have something to do. Please you guys cross first.” Youngsan continues to use imagination to narrate the text. Youngsan says that Jacob was sitting near the Jabbok River and watching the situation. If Esau killed his wife and children, Jacob would flee again.

Youngsan explains Jacob’s foolishness with imagination as well. This imagination also appears in the conflict part of the narrative. In the scene in which the angel of God wrestled with Jacob, Youngsan illustrates that Jacob does not want to cross the Jabbok River, but God is who let Jacob cross the Jabbok River. He says, “After all, the angel of God dislocated Jacob’s socket of his thigh and Jacob could not run away, and his self-ego is completely broken and changed.”

After the climax, Youngsan utilizes the application image.26) For example, Youngsan says that if people do something rebellious against God’s will, God will strike the thigh. Here, “thigh” is used as a metaphor for unchanged or rebellious life. Youngsan illustrates, “If people do what is rebellious against God’s will, God will strike their thighs of family, business, and health.” However, this perspective goes beyond the clear indication of the text.27)

In Genesis 32:30-31, which is the conclusion, Youngsan uses imagination again. In verse 31, he imagines Jacob’s image as follows: “Jacob wrestled all night and became wounded. His head became hairier and his face had a bruise. Jacob’s garment became cloudy and limp. But the sun rose upon Jacob, who is transformed to rely on God alone.”

In the sermon titled “Prayer that Changes History and Fate,” Youngsan explains Esther 6:1 with imagination as follows:

The king was nodding, but he woke up after he heard the story that Mordecai had exposed Bigthana and Teresh, two of the king’s officers who guarded the doorway, who had conspired to assassinate King Xerxes.28)

The phrase “the king was nodding” does not appear in the text. However, it can be possibly imagined based on Esther 6:1. Additionally, “waking up from nodding” plays a role in implying that the king recognizes the conspiracy of Haman (Est 7:7).

Youngsan describes David attempting to fight Goliath in “Look at Your God.”

When David relies on God and then looks at Goliath, Goliath is nothing before God. Therefore, it does not matter whether humans are tall or small, but it matters whether faith in Humans are tall or small. David, who was small, relied on God in his heart, and his gut in his faith was much greater than Goliath.29)

The text does not say whether David’s faith is greater than Goliath. However, through David’s confession (1 Sm 17:37, 45), one can imagine that David might have had such a great faith. In this way, Youngsan utilizes the imagination based on the text and tells the story in an interesting way.


Ⅳ. Communicative Feature
1. Sense Appeal

Arthurs argues that vivid language appeals to the senses and re-creates experiences so that we come closest to the very experience of an event.30) Youngsan also says that sensory expressions for sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell can help the audience to see and feel the contents of the sermon.31) This writer sees that Youngsan employs imagery to help his audience visualize the content of the text.

For example, in “From Jacob to Israel,” in Genesis 32:24 where conflict begins, Youngsan explains the wrestling between the angel of God and Jacob using a description of Japanese wrestling. He uses the picture of pushing and pulling in Japanese wrestling to describe the wrestling between God’s messenger and Jacob. In this way, Youngsan portrays the image of Jacob wrestling with God so that the audience can visualize the story. Youngsan also tries to make the sermon vivid by physically imitating Jacob’s limp.

In “Look at Your God,” Youngsan compares physical height with the height of the faith as follows:

Therefore, it does not matter whether humans are tall or small, but it matters whether faith in Humans are tall or small. David, who was small, relied on God in his heart, and his gut in his faith was much greater than Goliath.32)

Through this comparison, Youngsan vividly depicts believers’ faith. In “Build the Collapsed Altar,” Youngsan uses a metaphor of a cloud to depict a conviction as below:

It is a cloud of conviction that comes to mind. When the mind is filled with anxiety, agitation, and fear, when you pray, a cloud of conviction begins to emerge in your heart. I am convinced. We must pray until then.33)

Youngsan makes the abstract expression of conviction visible with the word “cloud”. This helps the audience to feel the conviction of the heart as well.


Ⅴ. Applicative Feature
1. Timeless Truth

Stuart says, “Without application, exegesis is only an intellectual exercise.”34) Youngsan also says that the life of the sermon is in application and our faith can maintain vitality only if the Word of God can have a direct meaning to us today.35) In this respect, this writer discovers that Youngsan derives a timeless truth from the text and applies the truths to today’s contemporaries.36)

For example, in “From Jacob to Israel,” Youngsan explains the climax of the narrative in Genesis 32:25-28 and draws the main keyword “Change”. He then applies the main concept as the timeless truth to people’s daily lives. Youngsan says, “If we do what is rebellious against God’s will, God will strike the thigh of our family, business, and health. This is why we pray to be changed an obedient man to God’s will.” In “Look at Your God,” Youngsan derives the timeless truth that living faith is not living by the world’s standards but by God’s standards. Youngsan then says that people can live a victorious life when they live in the world with God’s standards. In “They Are Our Prey,” Youngsan chooses the central idea from Numbers 14:9 that “they will be our prey in God.” He also acquires the timeless truths from the idea that tribulations will be our prey in God.

As Lloyd-Jones says, “the business of preaching is to relate the teaching of the Scriptures to what is happening in our own day.”37) Deriving a timeless truth from the text helps the audience to realize what the Old Testament story means here and now.


Ⅵ. Conclusion
1. Summary

This writer found six preaching methodologies that appeared in Youngsan’s Old Testament narrative sermons: Re-presenting structure and holistic perspective as the structural features, central idea and imagination as the expositional features, sense appeal as a communicative feature, and timeless truth as an applicative feature. Youngsan’s preaching methodologies from the Old Testament narrative can be also described as “CHRIST” model with combining the first letter of six features as follows:


Figure 1. 
“CHRIST” model as Youngsan’s Preaching Methodology

In the scope of this study, on the one hand, the “CHRIST” model summarizes how Youngsan preaches the Old Testament narrative. On the other hand, this model implies that Youngsan’s preaching is ultimately Christ-centered through the Cross of Calvary.38) This implication is warranted by how Youngsan interprets the narratives in the lens of Christ-centeredness.39)

2. Evaluation through Text-driven Preaching40)

Although Youngsan is usually known as a three-point preacher, this paper demonstrates his Old Testament narrative preaching best responses to text-driven philosophy. When it comes to the substance in text-driven preaching, yielding the main idea is a vital process.41) In this respect, Youngsan brings the exegetical idea as the main idea of preaching. Structurally speaking, Youngsan has a tendency to form the sermon according to the scene of the text.42) In this study, the only available video sermon is “From Jacob to Israel.” When this writer watches it, he could feel the emotional design of the text.43) When Youngsan talks about the reconciliation between Jacob and Esau, one can see the tears rolling in Youngsan’s eyes. This emotion helps viewers feel the mood of the reconciliation. Likewise, Youngsan tries to help the audience understand the tone and mood of the text. Simply put, although Youngsan is not a generally text-driven preacher, this study shows that Youngsan is a preacher who attempts to re-present substance, structure, and spirit as long as he preaches the Old Testament narrative.

3. Suggestion

This writer hopes that there will be more research regarding Youngsan’s preaching methodologies of different kinds of narrative sermons and other genres and that the “CHRIST” model will be evaluated on its practicality. It will be also worthwhile to examine Youngsan’s other sermons through the lens of text-driven preaching. This study will serve to introduce the text-driven philosophy to those who pay attention to Youngsan as a preaching model.


Notes
3) There is, of course, the practical literature that has been studied in relation to the form of preaching. For example, in relation to the sermon classification, Doojin Sim evaluates Youngsan as a topical and a textual preacher in “An Analytic Study of the Preaching of Young San Yonggi Cho” (Ph.D. diss., Seoul Theological University, 2013). Recently, Jihoon Cho says that Youngsan runs his theology of preaching and goal of preaching through the form of preaching, the three-point sermon. See Cho, “An Investigation of Sermon Forms in Youngsan’s Preaching.” Also, he argues that Yonggi Cho has narrative aspects in his deductive-three point sermons. See Jihoon Cho, “An Investigation of Narrative Aspects of Youngsan’s Preaching,” Journal of Youngsan Theology, Vol. 44 (2018): 70-72. These studies are worthwhile in a sense that they deal with Youngsan’s sermon form and narrative aspect, but more practical and comprehensive preaching methodology needs to be analyzed.
4) The reason why this writer has Chosen Youngsan’s Old Testament narrative first is that this writer could get partial clues about how Youngsan preaches the Old Testament narrative in his major homiletic book, It Is How I Preach『나는 이렇게 설교한다』Naneun Ireoke Seolgyohanda (Seoul: Seoul Logos, 1984). For example, Youngsan explains that there are two ways to preach the Scripture: a descriptive way of describing it as participating in the scene of the events occurring in the Bible, and a narrative description according to the story flows. This is how the plot of the biblical story serves as the structure of the sermon. As a method of preaching that makes this biblical structure a sermon structure, there is the Text-driven preaching methodology. See, Ned Lee Mathews, David Lewis Allen and Daniel L. Akin, Text-Driven Preaching: God’s Word at the Heart of Every Sermon (Nashville: B & H Academic, 2010).
7) Mathewson says, “Interpreters do not have to agonize over exactly where each change occurs. Often the changes between plot elements reflect the almost imperceptible shift from first to second gear with an automatic transmission.” See Mathewson, The Art of Preaching Old Testament Narrative, 44.
10) Ibid., 51.
12) In hybrid preaching, the text moves inductively toward a certain proposition and then expounds upon it with points, observations, applications, or principles that flow deductively from the idea. See, for example, Robby Gallaty and Steven Smith, Preaching for the Rest of Us: Essentials for Text-Driven Preaching (Nashville: B & H Academic, 2018), 56.
14) Jihoon Cho says that the form of three-point sermon is appropriate for Yonggi Cho to accomplish his goal of preaching with his theology of preaching. It implies that preacher can impose the certain homiletic form to the text. See, for example, Jihoon Cho, “An Investigation of Sermon Forms in Youngsan’s Preaching,” 108. However, this study demonstrates that Youngsan’s sermon structure is imposed by the form of the text.
15) Greidanus categorizes the holistic interpretation in three ways: literary interpretation, historical interpretation, and theological interpretation. However, this writer uses the term, “holistic” only as the literary interpretation in this paper. According to Greidanus, the literary interpretation focuses generally on understanding in total context and attention to detail. For more detail, see, Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and The Ancient Text: Interpreting and Preaching Biblical Literature (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1998), 213-14.
16) Smith, Recapturing the Voice of God, 18.
17) Ibid.
21) Ibid., 17-18.
22) Cho, It Is How I Preach, 266.
24) Mathewson, The Art of Preaching Old Testament Narrative, 142-43.
25) Cho, It Is How I Preach, 242.
26) Mathewson also mentions the application images. He says, “Effective preachers also paint pictures of what the truth looks like fleshed out in a listener’s life.” For more detail, see, Mathewson, The Art of Preaching Old Testament Narrative, 143.
27) Dillmann says that the limping shows that it was a physical occurrence in a material world. See, Allen P. Ross, Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of Genesis (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1996) Kindle edition, 6861.
31) Cho, It Is How I Preach, 330.
35) Cho, It Is How I Preach, 289-90.
36) Merida says, “Theological implications are timeless biblical truths which apply to every hearer.” See, for more detail, Tony Merida, Faithful Preaching: Declaring Scripture with Responsibility, Passion, and Authenticity (Nashville: B & H Academic, 2009), 103-105.
38) Cho, Preaching Is My Life, 67-68: “It is easy for us to move our attention from Jesus as our center of life. When preaching leans toward worldly ethics and morality, the wind of despair soon comes. Then we must immediately reconfigure our minds with Christ-centered preaching.” However, Youngsan does not seek to discover where Christ is mentioned in every narrative text. Rather, Youngsan leans toward Brian Chapell’s view that the goal of preacher is not to find novel ways of making Jesus appear in every text (we should not need a magic wand or a decoder ring to interpret Scripture), but to disclose where every text stands in relation to Christ’s ministry, the Cross of Calvary. Regarding Youngsan’s theology of the Cross, see Han Kyung Kim, “The Theology That Makes Theology Possible: Youngsan’s Theology of the Cross as Theological Epistemology,” Journal of Youngsan Theology, Vol. 20 (2010):12-14, 20-24. For Youngsan’s Christ-centered preaching, see Hong Keun Kim, “Youngsan’s Preaching and Kerygma,” Journal of Youngsan Theology, Vol. 23 (2011): 152-62; Miah Yi, “A Characteristic of Structure and Contents of Dr. Yonggi Cho’s Preaching,” Journal of Youngsan Theology, Vol. 29 (2013): 282-84. Regarding Brian Chapell’s Christ-centered preaching, see Scott M. Gibson and Matthew D. Kim, Homiletics and Hermeneutics: Four Views on Preaching Today (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2018), 7-8.
39) The scope of this study is not to examine whether Youngsan has a Christ-centered view on the Old Testament. Still, this writer sees Youngsan’s Christ-centered or redemptive-historical perspectives. For example, in the sermon titled “Look at Your God,” Youngsan uses the illustration as the introduction that Peter walked on the water while looking at only Jesus. In “Build the Collapsed Altar,” as the first application, Youngsan says that people should build the collapsed altar of their faithful lives to walk with Jesus. In “They Are Our Prey,” for the second point, Youngsan emphasizes Christ’s love through God to tell that for those who have visions, tribulation will be the food (Rom 8:31-39).
40) Text-Driven Preaching is the interpretation and communication of a biblical text in a sermon that re-presents the substance, structure, and the spirit of the text. For example, if there are two points in a certain text, the sermon needs to be two-point sermon. For more detail, see Mathews et al., Text-Driven Preaching.
41) Gallaty and Smith, Preaching for the Rest of Us, 29: “Just as the process of interpretation yields the meaning of the text, the process of communication yields a main idea—the point of the sermon in one sentence.”
42) This is a uniqueness of Text-driven preaching. See, David L. Allen. “TEXT DRIVEN PREACHING VS. TEXT CENTERED PREACHING,” Preaching Source, December 16, 2016, http://preachingsource.com/blog/text-driven-preaching-vs-text-centered-preaching/, accessed May 1, 2019.
43) Regarding the spirit of the text, see Smith, Recapturing the Voice of God, 21-22.

Bibliography
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2. Cho, Yonggi. Preaching Is My Life『설교는 나의 인생』Seolgyoneun Naui Insaeng. Seoul: Seoul Logos, 2005.
3. Cho, Yonggi. “Prayer that Changes History and Fate.” Sunday Sermon (1992.5.31).
4. Cho, Yonggi. “Look at Your God.” Sunday Sermon (1992.11.1).
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6. Cho, Yonggi. “Build the Collapsed Altar.” Sunday Sermon (2001.1.21).
7. Cho, Yonggi. “From Jacob to Israel.” Sunday Sermon (2008.11.16).
8. Arthurs, Jeffrey D. Preaching with Variety: How to Re-Create the Dynamics of Biblical Genres. Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2007.
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